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Archaeologists have long subjected Clovis megafauna kill/scavenge sites to the highest level of scrutiny. In 1987, a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was found in spatial association with a small artifact assemblage in Converse County, Wyoming. However, due to the small tool assemblage, limited nature of the excavations, and questions about the security of the association between the artifacts and mammoth remains, the site was never included in summaries of human-killed/scavenged megafauna in North America. Here we present the results of four field seasons of new excavations at the La Prele Mammoth site that confirm the presence of an associated cultural occupation based on geologic context, artifact attributes, spatial distributions, protein residue analysis, and lithic microwear analysis. This new work identified a more extensive cultural occupation including the presence of multiple discrete artifact clusters in close proximity to the mammoth bone bed. This study confirms the presence of a second Clovis mammoth kill/scavenge site in Wyoming and shows the value in revisiting proposed terminal Pleistocene kill/scavenge sites.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
The National Strategy for Disaster Resilience (NSDR) characterizes resilient communities as having strong disaster and financial mitigation strategies, strong social capacity, networks, and self-reliance. Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) embrace many characteristics of a disaster resilient community. NPOs do not operate for the profit of individual members. Community groups like Lions and Rotary Club have long histories, and while not established to respond to disasters, they frequently have heavy involvement in preparing for or recovering from, disasters.
The study aims to address the question, “What is the potential role of nonprofit organizations in building community resilience to disasters?”
An applied research project was carried out, using theories of resilience, social capital, and the Sendai framework to conceptualize the frameworks and guide the process. Qualitative research methods, thematic analysis, and case studies helped identify Lions, Rotary, and Neighbourhood Houses Victoria strengths, barriers, and enablers.
Research demonstrated how NPOs made significant contributions to building communities’ resilience to disasters. NPOs facilitate three Sendai guiding principles of engaging, empowering, and enabling the community to build disaster resilience. Actions included raising awareness to disaster risk, reducing disaster risk, helping prepare for disasters, and contributing to long term disaster recovery. NPO strengths included local knowledge, community trust, and connections, which matched characteristics listed in the NSDR for a disaster resilient community. However, barriers to participation included traditional emergency services ignoring NPOs, lack of role definition, and lack of perceived legitimacy.
As the first Australia research to scientifically analyze the contributions of these NPOs to build community resilience, before, during and after disaster, this study enhances understanding and recognition of NPOs and assists in identifying means to facilitate their disaster resilience activities and place them more effectively within Emergency Management strategic processes. Greater utilization of such assets could lead to better community outcomes.
Using human skeletal remains, this volume traces health, workload and violence in the European population over the past 2,000 years. Health was surprisingly good for people who lived during the early Medieval Period. The Plague of Justinian of the sixth century was ultimately beneficial for health because the smaller population had relatively more resources that contributed to better living conditions. Increasing population density and inequality in the following centuries imposed an unhealthy diet - poor in protein - on the European population. With the onset of the Little Ice Age in the late Middle Ages, a further health decline ensued, which was not reversed until the nineteenth century. While some aspects of health declined, other attributes improved. During the early modern period, interpersonal violence (outside of warfare) declined possibly because stronger states and institutions were able to enforce compromise and cooperation. European health over the past two millennia was hence multifaceted in nature.
Once-daily dosing with dasotraline, a novel dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, achieves stable plasma concentrations over 24 hours with once-daily dosing. This study evaluated dasotraline in children aged 6–12 years (NCT02428088).
Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 6 weeks of once-daily, fixed-dose dasotraline 2 or 4 mg/day, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline (CFB) at Week 6 in ADHD Rating Scale Version IV – Home Version (ADHD RS-IV HV) total score, using a mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary endpoints included Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score and safety endpoints.
The mean age of 342 randomized patients was 9.1 [SD: 1.9] years; 66.7% were male. Overall, 79% of patients completed the study. In the ITT population (N=336), ADHD RS-IV HV total score improved significantly with dasotraline 4 mg/day vs placebo(least squares [LS] mean [SE] CFB at Week 6: –17.53 [±1.31] vs –11.36 [±1.29], respectively, p<0.001; effect size [ES]: 0.48). Inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale scores significantly improved with 4 mg/day vs placebo at Week 6 (p=0.001, p=0.003, respectively). Improvement in CGI-S score was statistically significant with dasotraline 4 mg/day vs placebo(LS mean [SE] CFB at Week 6: –1.39 [±0.12] vs –1.04 [±0.12], respectively, p=0.040; ES: 0.29). No significant improvement was observed on the ADHD RS-IV HV total score and the CGI-S score for dasotraline 2 mg/day vs placebo. The most frequent treatment-emergent AEs (≥5% and higher than placebo) were (2 mg/day; 4 mg/day; placebo): insomnia (15.3%; 21.7%; 4.3%, all terms combined), decreased appetite (12.6%; 21.7%; 5.2%), weight loss (5.4%; 8.7%; 0%), irritability (3.6%; 7.0%; 6.0%), nasopharyngitis (0.9%; 5.2%; 0.9%), and nausea (0%; 5.2%; 2.6%).
Compared with placebo, dasotraline 4 mg/day significantly improved ADHD symptoms in children, as assessed by ADHD RS-IV HV total score and inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale scores. Dasotraline was generally well tolerated; most common AEs were insomnia, decreased appetite, weight loss and irritability.
Quasi-stationary distributions (QSDs) arise from stochastic processes that exhibit transient equilibrium behaviour on the way to absorption. QSDs are often mathematically intractable and even drawing samples from them is not straightforward. In this paper the framework of sequential Monte Carlo samplers is utilised to simulate QSDs and several novel resampling techniques are proposed to accommodate models with reducible state spaces, with particular focus on preserving particle diversity on discrete spaces. Finally, an approach is considered to estimate eigenvalues associated with QSDs, such as the decay parameter.
Befriending allows for control of the non-specific factors of the therapist–patient interaction in psychosocial research. Manualised befriending is at the very least an active placebo and potentially an effective intervention. Befriending now merits increased research attention to determine indications for use and to elucidate mechanisms of action.