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This article examines the history of immigrant business proprietors in England and Wales between 1851 and 1911. The newly available electronic version of the Census (I-CeM) allows all business proprietors in each Census year to be identified, and provides birthplace information that allows entrepreneurs from different countries to be compared to each other and to business proprietors born in the United Kingdom. Immigrant populations had higher rates of business proprietorship than the English and Welsh-born population. This article argues that this was caused by labour market structure and demography rather than cultural differences between English- and foreign-born business proprietors.
I am delighted to consider with an audience of academicians a subject as filled with both philosophical and political considerations as is the nature of American interests in Africa. It is a subject with which we in the government are confronted everyday, and to which we have, perforce, given a great deal of attention — even though we may not always articulate these interests as fully and clearly as many students of Africa would wish. As you may be aware the Department of State recently developed a new and more systematic approach to policy analysis and resource allocation in the aftermath of departmental task force recommendations contained in the report, Diplomacy for the 70's - A Program of Management Reform for the Department of State.
Icequakes at or near the bed of a glacier have the potential to allow us to investigate the interaction of ice with the underlying till or bedrock. Understanding this interaction is important for studying basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams, a critical process in ice dynamics models used to constrain future sea-level rise projections. However, seismic observations on glaciers can be dominated by seismic energy from surface crevassing. We present a method of automatically detecting basal icequakes and discriminating them from surface crevassing, comparing this method to a commonly used spectrum-based method of detecting icequakes. We use data from Skeidararjökull, an outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, South-East Iceland, to demonstrate that our method outperforms the commonly used spectrum-based method. Our method detects a higher number of basal icequakes, has a lower rate of incorrectly identifying crevassing as basal icequakes and detects an additional, spatially independent basal icequake cluster. We also show independently that the icequakes do not originate from near the glacier surface. We conclude that the method described here is more effective than currently implemented methods for detecting and discriminating basal icequakes from surface crevassing.
The development of a linuron-free weed management strategy for carrot production is essential as a result of the herbicide reevaluation programs launched by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency in Canada for herbicides registered before 1995 and the discovery of linuron-resistant pigweed species in Ontario. Field trials were conducted in one of Ontario’s main carrot-growing regions on high organic soils in 2016 and 2017. Pigweed species seedlings were effectively controlled with PRE treatments of prometryn, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, or glufosinate. POST treatments of pyroxasulfone and metribuzin followed by predetermined biologically effective dose (≥90% control of pigweed seedlings) of acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, fluthiacet-methyl, and fomesafen achieved excellent crop selectivity and commercially acceptable pigweed species seedling control under field conditions. Carfentrazone-ethyl or fomesafen applied PRE severely reduced seedling emergence and yield in the wet growing season of 2017. This study demonstrated clearly that an alternative linuron-free strategy can be developed for carrots. The strategy of exploring the potential to use the biologically effective dose of selected herbicides to achieve crop selectivity and control of pigweed species seedlings was verified.
Synchrotron radiation was used to obtain a high-resolution powder diffraction pattern of the high-density form of BeH2, a material whose unit-cell dimensions have not previously been determined. The observed d-spacing values were presented to three different computer indexing programs. All three programs returned as best solution a body-centered orthorhombic unit cell with a = 9.082, b = 4.160, c = 7.707 Å and V = 292 Å3. Interpretation of the three-dimensional Patterson led to 12 BeH2 molecules per unit cell; thus, the theoretical density is 0.755 g/cm3. The molecular structure is based on a network of corner-sharing BeH4 tetrahedra rather than flat, infinite chains with hydrogen bridges previously assumed.
Spray drying is shown to be an effective and rapid method for preparing samples for quantitative analysis by x-ray powder diffraction. Previously intractable problems like the simultaneous analysis of multiple phases in orientation prone systems can be carried out. Using this method, and a computer controlled diffractometer, five and six phase analyses of Devonian shales can be accomplished in approximately forty minutes. A rapid and convenient method for using the absorption diffraction technique for x-ray quantitative analysis is described.
The spray drying of powders is a method of forming spherical or torroidal shaped agglomerates. A relatively simple method is given for preparing spray dried samples of the quantities used in x-ray diffraction analysis. This technique is shown to minimize preferred orientation effects on diffraction intensities from materials of widely differing symmetry and crystallite habit.
Methods for identifying relevant policy impacts for valuation in benefit-cost analyses (BCAs) have received relatively little attention in academic research, applied policy analyses, and guidance documents. In this paper, we develop a systematic, transparent, and replicable process that draws upon information contained in records of Congressional hearings to identify relevant policy impacts for valuation in a BCA. Our approach involves classifying – and subsequently analyzing – statements from witnesses testifying in Congressional hearings on the topic of the BCA. By using Congressional hearings as the basis for our approach, we are identifying potential policy impacts from information provided during the very process the BCA is intended to inform. However, because this approach is quite resource-intensive and would be somewhat burdensome for agencies to implement, it may be best applied in the academic realm, with identified impacts resulting from such applications then made available to agency personnel for potential inclusion in BCAs. Using the case of the Glen Canyon Dam, we demonstrate the approach and its resulting improvements in the quality and transparency of the BCA it was intended to inform.
I have the pleasure to exhibit to the Society a curious Gimmal or Gemmow Ring; which was dug up, a few months ago, by the workmen employed on some buildings belonging to George Shepley Esq. at Horsley-down, in Surrey. It was discovered about eight or nine seet below the surface of the earth, in what is called made-ground, but which appeared to have lain undisturbed for a considerable length of time. Other rings, and many ancient copper coins and medals, both Roman and English, were found near the same spot; as were the skeletons of several human bodies.
Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) resonant absorbers comprise a conducting ground plane, a dielectric of thickness t, and thin separated metal top-surface structures of dimension l. The fundamental resonance wavelength is predicted by an analytic standing-wave model based on t, l, and the dielectric refractive index spectrum. For the dielectrics SiO2, AlN, and TiO2, values for l of a few microns give fundamental resonances in the 8-12 μm long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelength region. Agreement with theory is better for t/l exceeding 0.1. Harmonics at shorter wavelengths were already known, but we show that there are additional resonances in the far-infrared 20 - 50 μm wavelength range in MIM structures designed to have LWIR fundamental resonances. These new resonances are consistent with the model if far-IR dispersion features in the index spectrum are considered. LWIR fundamental absorptions are experimentally shown to be optimized for a ratio t/l of 0.1 to 0.3 for SiO2- and AlN-based MIM absorbers, respectively, with TiO2-based MIM optimized at an intermediate ratio.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes including prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) have been associated with life-long chronic disease risk for the infant. Stress during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Many studies have reported the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Indigenous populations and a smaller number of studies have measured rates of stress and depression in these populations. This study sought to examine the potential association between stress during pregnancy and the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote communities in New South Wales. This study found a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy than the general population. There was also a higher incidence of prematurity and LBW deliveries. Unfortunately, missing post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptomatology data impeded the examination of associations of interest. This was largely due to the highly sensitive nature of the issues under investigation, and the need to ensure adequate levels of trust between Indigenous women and research staff before disclosure and recording of sensitive research data. We were unable to demonstrate a significant association between the level of stress and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes at this stage. We recommend this longitudinal study continue until complete data sets are available. Future research in this area should ensure prioritization of building trust in participants and overestimating sample size to ensure no undue pressure is placed upon an already stressed participant.
EARLY in Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, the title character admonishes himself: “Faustus, begin thine incantations / And try if devils will obey thy hest” (B 1.3.5–6). In the play, devils indeed obey Faustus—for a price. While Marlowe's play is the most famous Elizabethan portrayal of devils, it is not the only early modern work to treat devils as substantial characters. Around the time when Faustus first appeared on stage, an unlikely Marlovian counterpart was at work. Anne Dowriche, a Puritan preacher's wife, whose preface haughtily notes that “Poëtrie [has] been defaced of late so many waies by wanton vanity,” published The French Historie in 1589. This poem, in the tradition of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments, portrays the persecution of French Protestants during the Wars of Religion; Dowriche includes a remarkably vivid characterization of Satan, one that I argue can be fruitfully compared to the devils in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus.
These two authors make an unlikely pair: an obscure Puritan poet and a famously controversial playwright. Their works are in different genres, with different purposes, and, consequently, have different depictions of the devil. Marlowe's play has many devils, from Satan to lower-level minions; Mephistopheles falls somewhere in the middle of this hierarchy. Dowriche, on the other hand, focuses only on Satan himself. Marlowe's blank-verse play has frequent dialogues between Faustus and Mephistopheles; Dowriche's poem, employing the much-maligned poulter's measure, contains primarily monologues delivered by Satan to eager listeners. Marlowe's portrayal of devils is thus much more immediate and intimate, at least where the characters are concerned. While Faustus and Mephistopheles make a brief detour to interfere with the Pope's quarrel with the Holy Roman Empire, Mephistopheles is primarily concerned with Faustus's individual soul rather than with international politics. Dowriche's Satan, on the other hand, speaks most often to the heads of state in France, while Dowriche's narrator (a French exile) directly challenges England to “remaine … A Nurse to Gods afflicted flock”—i.e., persecuted Protestants (lines 97–98). In fact, Dowriche's dedication of the poem to her brother, Piers Edgecombe, a strong supporter of Protestant refugees relocating to England, suggests that Dowriche had a political as well as a religious purpose for publishing her poem. It is not surprising that two such different authors produced different depictions of the devil.
Off-label ketamine treatment has shown acute antidepressant effects that offer hope for patients with therapy-resistant depression. However, its potential for integration into treatment algorithms is controversial, not least because the evidence base for maintenance treatment with repeated ketamine administration is currently weak. Ketamine is also a drug of misuse, which has raised concerns regarding the target population. Little is known about which patients would seek ketamine treatment if it were more widely available.
To explore some of the characteristics of the patients actively seeking ketamine treatment.
An online survey containing questions about duration of current depressive episode, number of antidepressants used and other comments was completed by patients who were exploring the internet regarding the possibility of ketamine for depression.
Of the 1088 people who registered their interest, 93.3% reported depression, 64.3% reported a chronic course of their symptoms and in the past 10 years, 86.3% had tried at least two antidepressants. Desperation was a common theme, but this appeared to be competently expressed. A small minority (<8%) reported experience of illegal ketamine use.
It cannot be ruled out that patients with different degrees of treatment resistance and comorbidities will seek treatment with ketamine. This stresses the urgency to perform larger randomised controlled trials as well as to systematically monitor outcomes and adverse effects of ketamine, that is currently prescribed off-label for patients in need.
Declaration of interest
R.M. is consulting and is Principal Investigator for Janssen trials of esketamine and is consulting for Eleusis.
Vegetable and grain amaranths represent a vital source of micronutrients and protein in Asia and Africa. However, various foliar lepidopteran pests and stem-mining weevils hinder amaranth production. Insect-resistant cultivars can enhance the productivity of this crop. Here, we report on the performances of amaranth varieties screened for their resistance to insect pests under the field conditions at The World Vegetable Center stations in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted two preliminary screening trials with a total of 263 entries from around the world in Taiwan and a third preliminary screening trial with 49 African-indigenous entries in Tanzania. Promising entries from these preliminary trials were collectively evaluated in an advanced screening trial in Tanzania, to identify lines resistant to foliar and stem-boring pests in East Africa. Four entries exhibited moderate resistance to foliar pests: TZ51 and TZ53 (Amaranthus cruentus), TZ34 (A. dubius) and TZ39 (Amaranthus sp.). Five entries showed moderate resistance to stem weevils: TZ06 and TZ27 (A. cruentus), TZ52 (A. graecizans), TZ59 (A. palmeri) and TZ07 (Amaranthus sp.). Lepidopteran pests affecting leaves were reared to adulthood and identified as Spoladea recurvalis (Crambidae), Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae). Stem weevil larvae were also reared and identified as: Neocleonus sannio Herbst, Gasteroclisus pr. rhomboidalis Boheman, Hypolixus pr. haerens Boheman and Baradine sp. (Curculionidae). These results highlight key amaranth pests in East Africa and identify insect-resistant entries that will be useful in breeding programmes and resistance studies.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.