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Despite the substantial investment by Australian health authorities to improve the health of rural and remote communities, rural residents continue to experience health care access challenges and poorer health outcomes. Health literacy and community engagement are both considered critical in addressing these health inequities. However, the current focus on health literacy can place undue burdens of responsibility for healthcare on individuals from disadvantaged communities whilst not taking due account of broader community needs and healthcare expectations. This can also marginalize the influence of community solidarity and mobilization in effecting healthcare improvements.
The objective is to present a conceptual framework that describes community literacy, its alignment with health literacy, and its relationship to concepts of community engaged healthcare.
Community literacy aims to integrate community knowledge, skills and resources into the design, delivery and adaptation of healthcare policies, and services at regional and local levels, with the provision of primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare that aligns to individual community contexts. A set of principles is proposed to support the development of community literacy. Three levels of community literacy education for health personnel have been described that align with those applied to health literacy for consumers. It is proposed that community literacy education can facilitate transformational community engagement. Skills acquired by health personnel from senior executives to frontline clinical staff, can also lead to enhanced opportunities to promote health literacy for individuals.
The integration of health and community literacy provides a holistic framework that has the potential to effectively respond to the diversity of rural and remote Australian communities and their healthcare needs and expectations. Further research is required to develop, validate, and evaluate the three levels of community literacy education and alignment to health policy, prior to promoting its uptake more widely.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
The peoples of southern Mesoamerica, including the Classic period Maya, are often claimed to exhibit a distinct type of spatial organization relative to contemporary urban systems. Here, we use the settlement scaling framework and properties of settlements recorded in systematic, full-coverage surveys to examine ways in which southern Mesoamerican settlement systems were both similar to and different from contemporary systems. We find that the population-area relationship in these settlements differs greatly from that reported for other agrarian settlement systems, but that more typical patterns emerge when one considers a site epicenter as the relevant social interaction area, and the population administered from a given center as the relevant interacting population. Our results imply that southern Mesoamerican populations mixed socially at a slower temporal rhythm than is typical of contemporary systems. Residential locations reflected the need to balance energetic and transport costs of farming with lower-frequency costs of commuting to central places. Nevertheless, increasing returns in activities such as civic construction were still realized through lower-frequency social mixing. These findings suggest that the primary difference between low-density urbanism and contemporary urban systems lies in the spatial and temporal rhythms of social mixing.
MARGARET Tyler's Mirror of Princely Deeds and Knighthood, published in 1578, translates Book One of Espejo de Príncipes y Caballeros by Diego Ortúñez de Calahorra, but Tyler makes several changes and additions to the Spanish text she translates. As Joyce Boro's excellent 2014 edition details, most of these changes are in the service of Tyler's English audience, incorporating specifically English vocabulary and literary techniques as well as making English characters and settings more attractive than in the Spanish original. One particular addition, however, has remained perplexing: a standalone reference to “the Jews” that Tyler adds to a chapter title. While there are several possible interpretations of Tyler's addition here, this essay suggests that this reference alludes to the apocryphal story of Judith, with which Tyler's audience would have been familiar.
Chapter 29 of the Mirror bears the following title: “Rosicleer, in Liverba's name, slayeth Argion and removeth the Jews.” As Boro notes, “the removal of the Jews is added to the chapter title, which is very odd since there are no Jews in the chapter, or anywhere at all in the romance.” A little context for this title: in chapter 29, one of the Mirror's protagonists, Rosicleer, undertakes his first battle on his quest to become a knight. Rosicleer has grown up in a monastery and has only recently discovered his true identity as the son of the Hungarian princess Briana and a great foreign knight. In the previous chapter, Rosicleer stumbles on a valley ruled by the evil tyrant Argion; among Argion's most despicable practices is his continual demand for young women “for his carnal liking” (127.89). Liverba is one of the young women Argion requests; Rosicleer disguises himself as a woman in order to take her place, get close to Argion, and slay the tyrant.
As Boro notes, the reference to “the Jews” seems misplaced in this episode. “[R]emoveth the Jews” certainly sounds like an anti- Semitic reference, which of course cannot be ruled out given the expulsion of Jews from medieval England as well as the general rhetoric of distrust that persisted into the early modern era.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To investigate family structure differences in adolescents’ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar-added soft drinks with adjustments for socio-demographic and socio-economic variables.
Cross-sectional data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey.
Norwegian primary and secondary schools.
Adolescents (n 4475) aged 11, 13, 15 and 16 years.
After adjusting for covariates, living in a single-mother family was associated with lower vegetable consumption (OR 0·76, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·91) and higher soft drink consumption (OR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·57). Living in a mother and stepfather family was negatively associated with fruit (OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95) and vegetable (OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·97) consumption. Living in a single-father family was associated with lower sweets consumption (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·72). No significant interactions were demonstrated between family structure and socio-demographic or socio-economic covariates.
The study suggests that an independent association between family structure and adolescents’ food habits exists.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent a significant antibiotic resistance threat, in part because carbapenemase genes can spread on mobile genetic elements. Here, we describe the molecular epidemiology and outcomes of patients with CRE bacteriuria from the same city in a nonoutbreak setting. Methods: The Georgia Emerging Infections Program performs active, population-based CRE surveillance in Atlanta. We studied a cohort of patients with CRE (resistant to all tested third-generation cephalosporins and ≥1 carbapenem, excluding ertapenem) first identified in urine, and not in a prior or simultaneous sterile site, between 2012 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on a convenience sample. We obtained epidemiologic and outcome data through chart review and Georgia Vital Statistics records (90-day mortality). Using WGS, we created a core-genome alignment-based phylogenetic tree of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and calculated the SNP difference between each sample. Using SAS version 9.4 software, we performed the Fisher exact test and univariable odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI to compare patient isolates with and without a carbapenemase gene. Results: Among 81 patients included, the median age was 68 (IQR, 57–74) years, and most were female (58%), black (60%), and resided in a long-term care facility 4 days prior to culture isolation (53%). Organisms isolated were K. pneumoniae (84%), Escherichia coli (7%), Enterobacter cloacae (7%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (1%). WGS identified at least 1 β-lactamase gene in 91% of the isolates; 85% contained a carbapenemase gene, the most frequent of which was blaKPC-3 (94%). Patients with CRE containing a carbapenemase gene were more likely to be black (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.0–13.8) and to have K. pneumoniae (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.2–35.0). Using a core-genome alignment of 3,708 genes (~63% of the complete genome), we identified a median of 67 (IQR, 23–3,881) SNP differences between each K. pneumoniae isolate. A phylogenetic tree identified clustering around carbapenemase gene and multilocus sequence type (84% were ST 258) but not based on referring laboratory or county of residence (Fig. 1). Although 7% of patients developed an invasive CRE infection within 1 year and 21% died within 90 days, having a carbapenemase gene was not associated with these outcomes. Conclusions: Molecular sequencing of a convenience sample of CRE bacteriuria support K. pneumoniae ST258 harboring blaKPC-3 being distributed throughout the Atlanta area, across the healthcare continuum. Overall mortality was high in this population, but the presence of carbapenemase genes was not associated with worse outcomes.
Yuval Peres and Perla Sousi showed that the mixing times and average mixing times of reversible Markov chains on finite state spaces are equal up to some universal multiplicative constant. We use tools from nonstandard analysis to extend this result to reversible Markov chains on compact state spaces that satisfy the strong Feller property.
Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
Classical stewardship efforts have targeted immunocompetent patients; however, appropriate use of antimicrobials in the immunocompromised host has become a target of interest. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common and significant complications after solid-organ transplant (SOT). The treatment of CMV requires a dual approach of antiviral drug therapy and reduction of immunosuppression for optimal outcomes. This dual approach to CMV management increases complexity and requires individualization of therapy to balance antiviral efficacy with the risk of allograft rejection. In this review, we focus on the development and implementation of CMV stewardship initiatives, as a component of antimicrobial stewardship in the immunocompromised host, to optimize the management of prevention and treatment of CMV in SOT recipients. These initiatives have the potential not only to improve judicious use of antivirals and prevent resistance but also to improve patient and graft survival given the interconnection between CMV infection and allograft function.
Our objective was to examine the performance characteristics of a bladder stimulation technique for urine collection among infants presenting to the emergency department (ED).
This prospective cohort study enrolled a convenience sample of infants aged ≤ 90 days requiring urine testing in the ED. Infants were excluded if critically ill, moderately to severely dehydrated, or having significant feeding issues. Bladder stimulation consisted of finger tapping on the lower abdomen with or without lower back massage while holding the child upright. The primary outcome was successful midstream urine collection within 5 minutes of stimulation. Secondary outcomes included sample contamination, bladder stimulation time for successful urine collection, and perceived patient distress on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS).
We enrolled 151 infants and included 147 in the analysis. Median age was 53 days (interquartile range [IQR] 27–68 days). Midstream urine sample collection using bladder stimulation was successful in 78 infants (53.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 45–60.9). Thirty-nine samples (50%) were contaminated. Most contaminated samples (n = 31; 79.5%) were reported as “no significant growth” or “growth of 3 or more organisms”. Median bladder stimulation time required for midstream urine collection was 45 seconds (IQR 20–120 seconds). Mean VAS for infant distress was 22 mm (standard deviation 23 mm).
The success rate of this bladder stimulation technique was lower than previously reported. The contamination rate was high, however most contaminated specimens were easily identified and had no clinical impact.
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for Hypochondriacal Disorder, but the long-term effect has not been examined extensively.
To investigate the long-term effect of CBT on Hypochondriacal Disorder using several mental health measures. Follow-up time was at least 10 years.
A total of 50 patients with a long history of Hypochondriacal Disorder, diagnosed according to ICD-10, received 16 sessions of individual CBT and were followed up with an uncontrolled design. All participants were assessed before and after the intervention period, and 10 years later. Intention-to-treat mixed-model repeated-measures analysis were conducted. The study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00959452.
Patients displayed significant improvements across all outcomes, including level of health anxiety, somatisation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, somatisation at treatment completion. Treatment gains were well maintained 10 years later.
This uncontrolled treatment study suggests that patients treated with CBT for Hypochondriacal Disorder have significantly reduced health anxiety 1 year after treatment completion and the results are maintained 10 years later. The results indicate that CBT has a lasting effect, but the lack of a control group and use of only one therapist, means that care should be taken when generalising the findings.
Halting biodiversity loss depends on changing people’s choices and actions. Increasingly, conservationists use approaches based on social marketing to influence people’s behaviour for the benefit of wider society through techniques developed in the business world. We give definitions of the terms and outline when it should be used instead of, or alongside, law-based, education-based and technical intervention-based approaches. We then illustrate the systematic, step-by-step process underpinning social marketing campaigns with an example from the Caribbean, where the number of people taking wild parrots as pets was successfully reduced. This is followed by examples of social marketing from three different conservation contexts: in community-based natural resource management to reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, in demand reduction for rhino horn products, and in flagship species fundraising to broaden the benefits for biodiversity. We discuss the lessons that relate more broadly to conservation, including the need to acknowledge ethical issues and the difficulties involved in changing behaviour and the importance of identifying target audiences and evaluating campaigns.