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Excavations at several locations in Verteba Cave have uncovered a large amount of human skeletal remains in association with faunal bones and Tripolye material culture. We aim to establish radiocarbon (14C) dates for eight sites and to evaluate whether these deposits are singular events, or slow accumulations over time. 14C measurements, along with stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from human and faunal remains, were collected from 18 specimens. Stable isotope values were used to evaluate human and animal diet, and whether freshwater reservoir effects offset measured dates. We found diets of the sampled species had limited to no influence from freshwater resources. Human diet appears to be dominated by terrestrial plants and herbivores. Four new sites were identified as Eneolithic. Comparisons of dates from top and bottom strata for two sites (7 and 20) reveal coeval dates, and we suggest that these deposits represent discrete events rather than slow continuous use. Lastly, we identified dates from the Mesolithic (8490±45 BP, 8765±30 BP), Iron Age (2505±20 BP), Slavic state era (1315±25 BP), and Medieval Period (585±15 BP), demonstrating periodic use of the cave by humans prior to and after the Eneolithic.
Each year our Clinical and Translational Science Award pilot projects program awards approximately $500,000 in translational pilot funding to advance health in South Texas. We identified needs to improve the timeliness, transparency, and efficiency of the review process by surveying applicants. Lean six sigma methodologies, following a “Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control” approach, were used to streamline the pilot project application and review by identifying and removing bottlenecks from process flows. We evaluated the impact of our reorganized review process by surveying applicants and reviewers. Process mapping identified pilot project review as the main source of delay, leading to the implementation of a study section-style review mechanism. After one cycle, 90.3% of pilot applicants and 100% of reviewers were highly satisfied with the new processes and time to award notice was reduced by 2 months. All reviewers familiar with both review processes preferred the study section. We demonstrated how lean six sigma, a methodology not commonly applied in research administration, can be used to evaluate processes in translational science in academic health centers. Through our efforts, we were able to improve timeliness, transparency, and efficiency of the review process.
Hairworms (Nematomorpha) are a little-known group of parasites, and despite having been represented in the taxonomic literature for over a century, the implementation of molecular genetics in studies of hairworm ecology and evolution lags behind that of other parasitic taxa. In this study, we characterize the genetic diversity of the New Zealand nematomorph fauna and test for genetic structure within the most widespread species found. We provide new mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal sequence data for three previously described species from New Zealand: Gordius paranensis, Parachordodes diblastus and Euchordodes nigromaculatus. We also present genetic data on a previously reported but undescribed Gordius sp., as well as data from specimens of a new Gordionus sp., a genus new for New Zealand. Phylogenetic analyses of CO1 and nuclear rDNA regions correspond with morphological classification based on scanning electron microscopy, and demonstrate paraphyly of the genus Gordionus and the potential for cryptic species within G. paranensis. Population-level analyses of E. nigromaculatus showed no genetic differentiation among sampling locations across the study area, in contrast to previously observed patterns in known and likely definitive hosts. Taken together, this raises the possibility that factors such as definitive host specificity, intermediate host movement, and passive dispersal of eggs and larvae may influence host–parasite population co-structure in hairworms.
We have used a sample of 263 Parkes half-Jansky flat-spectrum radio sources to measure the spatial correlation function of radio galaxies and radio-loud quasars on scales up to 1000 h−1 Mpc. We do not detect any clustering in the sample. If any undetected clustering is described by a power-law spatial correlation function [ξ(r) = (r/r0)−1·8], we can rule out clustering with scales r0 ≥ 50 h−1 Mpc at the 99·9% confidence level. We have also used the sample to test for the ‘possible’ large concentration of quasars in the direction of the microwave background dipole found by Shaver (1987). There is no evidence for such a concentration in our data and we show that the earlier result was probably biased by the use of non-uniform image classifications.
Design can be viewed as a complex and on-going social accomplishment, a product of everyday trajectories between a milieu of human and material registers. Seen in this way the design practice serves as an arena for these quotidian activities. We seek to construct a more dynamic picture of architecture by connecting process and product, supplementing a project narrative with one of practice, highlighting the context in which the outcome was created. We address the research question: how does practice culture become intertwined within the designed product?
A research model emerged from the review of the literature and evolved as a loose framework to discuss the practices and projects at hand. The research focused on the particular design consideration of adaptability in an effort to direct and ground the study. The research was conducted in two stages –at first a set of interviews were conducted to gain broader insights into the everyday accounts of the practices and secondly, project case studies were selected to further investigate the topic.
The narratives reveal the culture of each practice to stress a particular meaning in each context: for Make it is about a beautiful object; for ABA a piece of social infrastructure and; for CGL a business asset. Adaptability finds itself subdued, promoted, compromised and sold as part of the design process and the resultant architecture. Our contribution extends the argument that design is entangled within its socio-cultural surroundings and grounds the culture of practice in the designed artefacts - the way in which a practice handles decision-making contingencies, both endogenous and exogenous forces, will together shape a practice disposition towards design (adaptability). Design that is driven by a strong culture that embeds exogenous influences in the approach tends to provide more adaptable solutions as part of a quest to satisfy long-term, societal concerns.
Thyroid hormones (THs) have been shown to improve in vitro embryo production in cattle by increasing blastocyst formation rate, and the average cell number of blastocysts and by significantly decreasing apoptosis rate. To better understand those genetic aspects that may underlie enhanced early embryo development in the presence of THs, we characterized the bovine embryonic transcriptome at the blastocyst stage, and examined differential gene expression profiles using a bovine-specific microarray. We found that 1212 genes were differentially expressed in TH-treated embryos when compared with non-treated controls (>1.5-fold at P < 0.05). In addition 23 and eight genes were expressed uniquely in control and treated embryos, respectively. The expression of genes specifically associated with metabolism, mitochondrial function, cell differentiation and development were elevated. However, TH-related genes, including those encoding TH receptors and deiodinases, were not differentially expressed in treated embryos. Furthermore, the over-expression of 52 X-chromosome linked genes in treated embryos suggested a delay or escape from X-inactivation. This study highlights the significant impact of THs on differential gene expression in the early embryo; the identification of TH-responsive genes provides an insight into those regulatory pathways activated during development.
The demanding tasks for automotive radar systems in multitarget scenarios require an increased target separation performance and new sensor concepts. In this contribution, a highly integrated 77 GHz time domain multiplex (TDM) MIMO radar is presented. The sensor is feasible for advanced direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in azimuth and elevation. For efficient and high-quality measurements a fractional-n phased locked loop (PLL) with integrated waveform generator, enabling chirp and frequency modulated continous waveform (FMCW) modulations, is implemented. Spatial beamforming is done with series feed array patch antennas in combination with a dielectric cylindrical lens. For the improvement of the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation performance a new lens-based MIMO radar approach is introduced. Therefore the classical MIMO approach is combined with the advantages of an optical beamforming concept. Due to the usage of these techniques the sensor performance in accuracy, ambiguity suppression, and angular resolution can be significantly increased.
We investigate the built-in voltage in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells using electroabsorption spectroscopy based on the Stark effect, i.e. the variation of the absorption energies of a material caused by an electric field. Due to spectral contributions of permanent dipoles, a novel approach for evaluating the EA spectra is required. We use a fitting routine analyzing a broad spectral range instead of using only a single wavelength. A reliable quantitative determination of the built-in voltage is achieved.