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Population-based registries report 95% 5-year survival for children undergoing surgery for CHD. This study investigated paediatric cardiac surgical outcomes in the Australian indigenous population.
All children who underwent cardiac surgery between May, 2008 and August, 2014 were studied. Demographic information including socio-economic status, diagnoses and co-morbidities, and treatment and outcome data were collected at time of surgery and at last follow-up.
A total of 1528 children with a mean age 3.4±4.6 years were studied. Among them, 123 (8.1%) children were identified as indigenous, and 52.7% (62) of indigenous patients were in the lowest third of the socio-economic index compared with 28.2% (456) of non-indigenous patients (p⩽0.001). The indigenous sample had a significantly higher Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score (indigenous 9.4±4.2 versus non-indigenous 8.7±3.9, p=0.04). The probability of having long-term follow-up did not differ between groups (indigenous 93.8% versus non-indigenous 95.6%, p=0.17). No difference was noted in 30-day mortality (indigenous 3.2% versus non-indigenous 1.4%, p=0.13). The 6-year survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. The Cox survival analysis demonstrated higher 6-year mortality in the indigenous group – indigenous 8.1% versus non-indigenous 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.1, 4.2; p=0.03. Freedom from surgical re-intervention was 79%, and was not significantly associated with the indigenous status (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; p=0.11). When long-term survival was adjusted for the Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score, no difference in outcomes between the populations was demonstrated (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2; p=0.19).
The indigenous population experienced higher late mortality. This apparent relationship is explained by increased patient complexity, which may reflect negative social and environmental factors.
To examine the relationship between television (TV) viewing and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents in a region of mainland China.
Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted between September and November of 2004, on a sample of enrolled high-school students aged 12–18 years.
One hundred and sixty-eight classes randomly selected from both urban and rural areas and belonging to 15 senior and 41 junior high schools in Nanjing, China, with a regional population of 6·0 million.
In total 6848 students participated; 47·7 % from urban and 52·3 % from rural areas; 49·0 % male and 51·0 % female. The response rate among eligible participants was 89·3 %.
The proportion of overweight was 6·6 % according to the criteria of overweight recommended for Chinese adolescents. Boys than girls (8·9 % vs. 4·4 %) had higher odds of being overweight (odds ratio (OR) 2·12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1·74, 2·60), while the proportion of overweight was significantly lower among rural students than urban students (4·5 % vs. 8·9 %; OR 0·49, 95 % CI 0·40, 0·60). Those students who watched TV for more than 7 h/week had a 1·5 times greater odds of being overweight relative to their counterparts who watched TV for 7 h/week or less (adjusted OR 1·51, 95 % CI 1·24, 1·82). Furthermore, there was a positive linear relationship between TV viewing time and BMI, even after adjusting for age, gender, residence area, time spent in study, in sleeping and in physical activity, and monthly pocket money.
Viewing TV might increase the likelihood of being overweight for Chinese adolescents in China.
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