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We investigated whether neurobehavioral markers of risk for emotion dysregulation were evident among newborns, as well as whether the identified markers were associated with prenatal exposure to maternal emotion dysregulation. Pregnant women (N = 162) reported on their emotion dysregulation prior to a laboratory assessment. The women were then invited to the laboratory to assess baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA in response to an infant cry. Newborns were assessed after birth via the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. We identified two newborn neurobehavioral factors—arousal and attention—via exploratory factor analysis. Low arousal was characterized by less irritability, excitability, and motor agitation, while low attention was related to a lower threshold for auditory and visual stimulation, less sustained attention, and poorer visual tracking abilities. Pregnant women who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation had newborns with low arousal levels and less attention. Larger decreases in maternal RSA in response to cry were also related to lower newborn arousal. We provide the first evidence that a woman's emotion dysregulation while pregnant is associated with risks for dysregulation in her newborn. Implications for intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation are discussed.
Before paediatric cardiology emerged as a specialty in the mid 20th century, a body of literature had developed over centuries devoted to description of congenitally malformed hearts. In this review, we have selected highlights from such texts written during the period of 100 years from 1814 to 1914, demonstrating their potential relevance to controversies occurring during the twentieth century in the categorisation of such hearts. We begin in 1814, with the first wide-ranging book devoted to congenital cardiac malformations. We end with a publication from 1914, because it included an illustration of the first electrocardiogram in a text devoted to paediatric disease. As we will show, these works from the 19th and early 20th centuries reflect topics still relevant today, namely the aetiology of cardiac malformations, clinicopathologic correlations, attempts at classification, and lack of effective treatments. Attention to their content could have served to ameliorate controversies, some of them ongoing.
Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs is largely uninvestigated. This study examined the effect of a fish oil diet on the fatty acid composition of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital brain lobes in juvenile pigs (7 weeks old). Pigs were randomly allocated to a semipurified pig diet containing either 4 % (w/w) fish oil (n 19) or 4 % (w/w) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSF diet, n 18) for a period of 8 weeks. The fish oil diet resulted in significantly higher proportions (%) of DHA in the frontal (10·6 (sd1·2)), parietal (10·2 (sd1·5)) and occipital brain lobes (9·9 (sd 1·3)), but not in the temporal lobe (7·7 (sd1·6)), compared with pigs fed the HOSF diet (frontal lobe, 7·5 (sd1·0); parietal lobe, 8·1 (sd 1·3); occipital lobe, 7·3 (sd1·2), temporal lobe, 6·6 (sd1·2). Moreover, the proportion of DHA was significantly lower in the temporal lobe compared with the frontal, parietal and occipital brain lobes in pigs fed a fish oil diet. In conclusion, the brains of juvenile pigs appear to be responsive to dietary fish oil, although the temporal brain lobe is less responsive compared with the other three brain lobes. The functional consequences of these differences are a challenging focus for future investigation.
Dynamic friction, wear volumes and wear morphology have been studied for sliding wear in polysilicon in ambient air at μN normal loads using on-chip micron-scale test specimens. With increasing number of wear cycles, the friction coefficients show two distinct types of behavior: (i) an increase by a factor of two and a half to a steady-state regime after peaking at three times the initial value of about 0.10 ± 0.04, with no failure after millions of cycles; (ii) an increase by a factor larger than three followed by failure after ∼105 cycles. Additionally, the average nano-scale wear coefficient sharply increased in the first ∼105 cycles up to about 10−4 and then decayed by an order of magnitude over the course of several million cycles. For both modes of behavior, abrasive wear is the governing mechanism, the difference being attributed to variations in the local surface morphology (and wear debris) between the sliding surfaces. The oxidation of worn polysilicon surfaces only affects the friction coefficient after periods of inactivity (>30 min).
Fetal bradycardia may herald fetal demise. This article highlights arrhythmic fetal bradycardia rather than bradycardia caused by perinatal distress. We briefly examine the embryonic conduction system's development and physiology and we review the classification, aetiology, evaluation, and approach to fetal bradycardia. Our aim is to provide the clinician with practical information about fetal bradycardia that enlightens causative conditions and aids management.
Serratia marcescens is recognized as an important and potentially hazardous nosocomial pathogen. The organism has been implicated here as the first reported case of S. marcescens meningitis associated with skin disinfection. A quaternary ammonium compound (QAC—Benzalkonium Chloride), was used to sterilize the skin prior to injection in a physician's office. Epidemiological studies were initiated. Six spray bottles containing disinfectant, the opened stock bottle of QAC, and an unopened bottle of disinfectant were all cultured. S. marcescens was noted growing in the spray bottles as well as in the opened stock bottle. Anti-biograms of the patient and epidemiological isolates are essentially the same. It is our contention as well as that of the Centers for Disease Control that an appropriate skin disinfectant such as Tincture of Chlorhexidine, Iodophors, or Tincture of Iodine should be used, and that physicians performing surgical techniques in the office be aware of the potential hazard of contamination. The consequences of nosocomial infection with resistant organisms warrant every precaution by health care professionals.
Spheroidal human blood platelets (2-3 μm) on contacting siliconized glass undergo a semi-stereotypicms the original spheroid into a hillock surrounded by a thin hylomere sheet. In this process, the platelet approximately doubles its diameter. Since platelets ar spreading of their margins with pseudopod and/or lamellapod extension. They also undergo a profound reorganization of their cytoskeleton in 10-15 min at 20°C which transfore 16-17% actin and 6-7% myosin and contain muscle like control proteins it is not unreasonable that platelet spreading occur by a sliding of actin filaments as in muscle. It is possible that myosin is present in platelets either as dimers or as ordered bipolar oligomeric filaments composed of 28 monomers. In the former case, filaments 165-300nm long and 2.0-4.0nm wide would be expected. In the latter case, the myosin filaments would be 325nm long and 10.7nm wide.
The cytoskeleton of demembranated platelets was investigated after an attachment interval of 20 min. or less at 20°C.
A recent statement by the five authors purports to demonstrate that the fruit we previously identified as ramón was really achiote. This response points out several weaknesses in the five authors' ethnohistorical methodology that makes their identification far less secure. The original aim of our paper is restated to turn discussion away from the minor point of ramón versus achiote.
Recent ethnohistorical investigations by the authors as part of a larger research effort focusing on Highland Maya ethnohistory have produced information on settlement patterns and subsistence activities for the Maya of the Alta Verapaz region. The environmentally transitional nature of this area—from tropical highlands to lowlands—makes this information of potential interest to Mayanists concerned with lowland civilization. Parallel subsistence activities known ethnographically from the present-day Itza of the Peten strengthens the applicability of this ethnohistorical information.
Two wild oat (Avena fatua L.) biotypes and two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties known to have intraspecific differential response to foliarly-applied 4-chloro-2-butynyl m-chlorocarbanilate (barban) were studied. When barban was applied to the roots, the intraspecific differential response (measured by shoot retardation) was maintained in both species but to a much lesser extent than previously observed with foliar application. Wild oat maintained a greater differential response than barley. Therefore, the factors causing the differential response to foliarly-applied barban may reside primarily in the leaves of both species but to some extent elsewhere (perhaps at the plant apex) in the wild oat biotypes and to a lesser extent elsewhere in the barley varieties. Differential response to foliar applications was not caused by differential uptake, but may be caused primarily by the susceptible biotype or variety's reduced ability to degrade barban beyond 3-chloroaniline. This might cause the greater build-up of compound X (a water-soluble 3-chloroaniline-containing metabolite of barban) observed in the susceptible biotype or variety. Compound X appeared to be nonphytotoxic. The build-up of compound X in turn may reduce the rate of metabolism of barban resulting in the greater amount of free barban found in the treated leaf of the susceptible biotype or variety 12 to 24 hr after treatment. This greater amount of free barban in the leaf of the susceptible biotype or variety may be responsible for the differential response to foliar applications of barban. Evidence for this partial explanation of the differential response was better for barley than for wild oat.