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Herbicide resistance has been studied extensively in agronomic crops across North America but is rarely examined in vegetables. It is widely assumed that the limited number of registered herbicides combined with the adoption of diverse weed management strategies in most vegetable crops effectively inhibits the development of resistance. It is difficult to determine whether resistance is truly less common in vegetable crops or whether the lack of reported cases is due to the lack of resources focused on detection. This review highlights incidences of resistance that are thought to have arisen within vegetable crops. It also includes situations in which herbicide-resistant weeds were likely selected for within agronomic crops but became a problem when vegetables were grown in sequence or in adjacent fields. Occurrence of herbicide resistance can have severe consequences for vegetable growers, and resistance management plans should be adopted to limit selection pressure. This review also highlights resistance management techniques that should slow the development and spread of herbicide resistance in vegetable crops.
Before any late-season weed control operations are planned to manage herbicide-resistant weeds, it is essential to evaluate the plants’ maturity and shattering potential. Our goal was to assess the seed-shattering phenology of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) using pollination bags as seed traps. A secondary goal was to evaluate the efficiency of these traps. Trials were conducted from 2014 to 2017 at two locations in eastern Canada (Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC, and Harrow, ON). At each location, three adjacent fields were seeded with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], or corn (Zea mays L.). Each field was divided into four replicate blocks that included two treatment plots with 5 weeds m−2 planted on the same date as the crop or when crop plants had two leaves (early or late emergence). To evaluate shattering in time, the experiment included up to 12 weekly collection dates (subplots). In each subplot, weeds were individually bagged at flowering (using mesh bags) until collection, when the number and viability of shattered and retained seeds per plant was recorded. Weather data as well as crop and weed stages were recorded. The effect of the pollen bags on seed retrieval and viability was evaluated by installing open and closed bags in corn and uncropped (bare) plots at a single location. Ambrosia artemisiifolia seed biomass was equivalent or higher in closed bags, and seed viability was equivalent or slightly reduced. No seeds were produced before harvest in spring wheat, as dispersal started in September. The percentage of seeds retained on the plant decreased linearly (1 site-year) or followed a logistic equation (4 site-years) with day of year or growing degree days. Dispersal in time was similar between early- and late-emerging weeds and similar in both corn and soybean. On average, more than 50% of A. artemisiifolia seeds were dispersed before harvest in corn and soybean.
The development of a linuron-free weed management strategy for carrot production is essential as a result of the herbicide reevaluation programs launched by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency in Canada for herbicides registered before 1995 and the discovery of linuron-resistant pigweed species in Ontario. Field trials were conducted in one of Ontario’s main carrot-growing regions on high organic soils in 2016 and 2017. Pigweed species seedlings were effectively controlled with PRE treatments of prometryn, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, or glufosinate. POST treatments of pyroxasulfone and metribuzin followed by predetermined biologically effective dose (≥90% control of pigweed seedlings) of acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, fluthiacet-methyl, and fomesafen achieved excellent crop selectivity and commercially acceptable pigweed species seedling control under field conditions. Carfentrazone-ethyl or fomesafen applied PRE severely reduced seedling emergence and yield in the wet growing season of 2017. This study demonstrated clearly that an alternative linuron-free strategy can be developed for carrots. The strategy of exploring the potential to use the biologically effective dose of selected herbicides to achieve crop selectivity and control of pigweed species seedlings was verified.
Tall weeds escaping early weed management, such as weeds resistant to one or multiple herbicides, are an increasing concern. When weeds reach a certain size, few options other than hand weeding will limit the production and dispersal of seeds. The objective of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of the Bourquin Organic Weed Puller® (a rotating series of wheels that grab and pull) at removing tall weeds before they shed seeds in soybean and adzuki bean. Trials were set up in Canada at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research farms at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu (SJR), QC (2 yr), and Harrow (HAR), ON (1 yr), on a loamy and a sandy soil, respectively. The experimental design included crops of different potential heights (different soybean cultivars and adzuki bean), two weed species per location (common lambsquarters [both locations] and common ragweed or redroot pigweed at HAR), and two pulling dates. The set-up also included weedy and herbicide-treated control plots. Weeds overtopping the crop canopy by at least 10 cm were tagged and characterized. Damage from the weed puller was rated as 1, pulled (desired effect); 2, cut; 3, folded; 4, stripped; and 5, intact. The seed production of damaged and intact weeds was also recorded. Less than one-third of common ragweed or redroot pigweed plants were pulled during any treatment combination. The highest pulling rates were observed for common lambsquarters at SJR (43%), but very few were pulled at HAR (3.1% max). Pulling rates were not high enough to potentially control seed inputs from herbicide-resistant populations, and successfully pulled common lambsquarters left on the ground produced thousands of viable seeds.
The objective of this WSSA Weed Loss Committee report is to provide quantitative data on the potential yield loss in sugar beet due to weed interference from the major sugar beet growing areas of the United States and Canada. Researchers and extension specialists who conducted research on weed control in sugar beet in the United States and Canada provided quantitative data on sugar beet yield loss due to weed interference in their regions. Specifically, data were requested from weed control studies in sugar beet from up to 10 individual studies per calendar year over a 15-yr period between 2002 and 2017. Data collected indicated that if weeds are left uncontrolled under optimal agronomic practices, growers in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ontario, Oregon, and Wyoming would potentially lose an average of 79%, 61%, 66%, 68%, 63%, 75%, 83%, 78%, and 77% of the sugar beet yield. The corresponding monetary loss would be approximately US$234, US$122, US$369, US$43, US$40, US$211, US$12, US$14, and US$32 million, respectively. The average yield loss due to weed interference for the primary sugar beet growing areas of North America was estimated to be 70%. Thus, if weeds are not controlled, growers in the United States would lose approximately 22.4 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$1.25 billion, and growers in Canada would lose approximately 0.5 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$25 million. The high return on investment in weed management highlights the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high crop yield and profitability of sugar beet production in North America.
Glyphosate-resistant populations of Conyza canadensis have been spreading at a rapid rate in Ontario, Canada, since first being documented in 2010. Determining the genetic relationship among existing Ontario populations is necessary to understand the spread and selection of the resistant biotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the genetic variation of C. canadensis accessions from the province of Ontario using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and (2) investigate the molecular mechanism (s) conferring resistance in these accessions. Ninety-eight C. canadensis accessions were genotyped using 8 SSR markers. Germinable accessions were challenged with glyphosate to determine their dose response, and the sequences of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes 1 and 2 were obtained. Results indicate that a majority of glyphosate-resistant accessions from Ontario possessed a proline to serine substitution at position 106, which has previously been reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other crop and weed species. Accessions possessing this substitution demonstrated notably higher levels of resistance than non–target site resistant (NTSR) accessions from within or outside the growing region and were observed to form a subpopulation genetically distinct from geographically proximate glyphosate-susceptible and NTSR accessions. Although it is unclear whether other non–target site resistance mechanisms are contributing to the levels of resistance observed in target-site resistant accessions, these results indicate that, at a minimum, selection for Pro-106-Ser has occurred in addition to selection for non–target site resistance and has significantly enhanced the levels of resistance to glyphosate in C. canadensis accessions from Ontario.
Five field trials were conducted over a 2-yr period (2007, 2008) at various locations in Ontario to evaluate the tolerance of black, cranberry, kidney, otebo, pink, pinto, small red Mexican (SRM), and white bean to halosulfuron applied PPI, PRE, and POST at 35 and 70 g ai/ha. There was minimal injury (3% or less) with halosulfuron applied PPI or PRE in dry bean. At Exeter and Ridgetown, halosulfuron applied POST at 35 and 70 g/ha caused 3 to 5% and 4 to 8% injury in dry bean, respectively at 1 wk after herbicide application (WAA). The injury was transient with no significant injury at 2 and 4 WAA. At Harrow, halosulfuron POST at 35 and 70 g/ha caused as much as 4% injury at 35 g/ha and 14% injury at 70 g/ha in dry bean. Halosulfuron applied PPI, PRE, and POST at 35 and 70 g/ha caused no decrease in plant height of dry bean except for kidney bean, which was reduced 6% at 70 g/ha, and white bean, which was reduced 3% at both 35 and 70 g/ha. Halosulfuron applied PPI, PRE, and POST at 35 and 70 g/ha caused no decrease in dry bean yield except for kidney bean, which was reduced 9% at 35 g/ha and 10% at 70 g/ha; otebo bean, which was reduced 3% at 70 g/ha; and white bean, which was reduced 7% at both 35 and 70 g/ha. On the basis of these results, there is an adequate margin of crop safety in dry bean to halosulfuron applied PPI or PRE at 35 and 70 g/ha. In addition, there is an adequate margin of crop safety in black, cranberry, pink, pinto, and SRM bean to halosulfuron applied POST at 35 and 70 g/ha. However, further research is required to ascertain the tolerance of kidney, otebo, and white bean to halosulfuron applied POST.
Foramsulfuron has recently been registered for weed control in corn in Ontario, but there is very little information on the rate of foramsulfuron required to obtain at least 90% weed control. Our objective was to determine the foramsulfuron rates giving at least 90% weed control while maintaining crop yield loss due to weed interference and injury at less than 5%. Ten field trials were conducted at five Ontario locations (Exeter, Harrow, Ridgetown, Woodslee, and Woodstock) in 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effectiveness of foramsulfuron at rates ranging from 8.75 to 140 g ai/ha. To obtain a reduction in biomass of 90% (I90) at 78 d after treatment (DAT), foramsulfuron must be applied to common lambsquarters at 68 g/ha and to common ragweed at 86 g/ha, respectively. For green foxtail a foramsulfuron rate of 25 g/ha was required to achieve 90% control. The application of foramsulfuron caused injury to corn at 7 DAT at Ridgetown and Woodstock only, but did not exceed a rating of 10%; by 14 and 28 DAT no corn injury was recorded at any location. Corn yield of at least 95% of a weed-free check was obtained at Woodstock when foramsulfuron was applied at 70 g/ha. At Exeter and Woodslee yield was 90% of the weed-free check at a foramsulfuron rate of 35 g/ha. Finally, at Harrow and Ridgetown, corn yield was lowered at all foramsulfuron rates because of broadleaved weed interference. Tank-mixing foramsulfuron with dicamba plus prosulfuron improved common lambsquarters and common ragweed control and final corn yield was improved by more than 20% when compared with an application of foramsulfuron alone. Thus, these results show that weed control with foramsulfuron is species specific and that tank mixtures with a broadleaf herbicide may be required for broad-spectrum weed control and to protect the full yield potential of corn.
Control of weeds growing around field edges to limit seed production is an important component of preventative weed management. POST herbicide rates that are effective on weeds growing within a dense corn or soybean canopy may not be high enough to control weeds at the edge of a field. A study was conducted from 2004 through 2006 to compare velvetleaf growth and fecundity at the edge of the field as opposed to within the crop in response to a range of glyphosate rates. Treatments included position (plot center or edge), time of emergence (VE or V4 crop growth stage) and glyphosate rate (0 to 900 g ae ha−1). Without herbicide application, velvetleaf plants grown on the edge flowered earlier, had thicker stems, and produced more seed capsules than plants grown in the center of the plots. At glyphosate application rates of 200 to 900 g ha−1, the percentage of plants surviving and reproducing was higher on the edge than within the crop. Edge plants treated with 900 g ha−1 of glyphosate produced more seeds than center plants that received no herbicide. Dose–response curves were used to estimate the glyphosate rate that would reduce seed production of surviving plants to 80% of the untreated plants. Plants emerging at the VE stage were estimated to require 300 g ha−1 within the corn or soybean canopy and 668 g ha−1 on the crop edge, whereas plants emerging at the V4 stage would require 0 g ha−1 within the canopy and 280 g ha−1 on the crop edge.
The effect of time of day (TOD) on the activity of six common POST herbicides was investigated in field trials from 2007 to 2009 at two locations in southwestern Ontario. Percentage weed control was assessed following application of bentazon, chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, glyphosate, imazethapyr, or quizalofop-p-ethyl applied at 3-h intervals from 6:00 A.M. to midnight, when weeds averaged 15 cm tall. The effect of time of day varied with weed species, but weed control was generally reduced when herbicides were applied at 6:00 A.M., 9:00 P.M., and midnight. Herbicide activity on velvetleaf was most frequently reduced, especially for chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate, and imazethapyr. Control of common ragweed with glyphosate and imazethapyr was also affected by the timing of application, and pigweed species only showed an effect with glyphosate. Variation in temperature, relative humidity, and dew presence/absence at different times of the day, as well as morphological/physiological characteristics such as weed size at time of application and diurnal leaf movement in response to light intensity, may account for the variation in weed control at different times of the day. Significant soybean yield loss was not observed in this study, but may occur if herbicide efficacy is severely reduced by application at inappropriate times of day. These results provide valuable information for growers, and suggest that POST herbicides are most effective when applied midday, rather than in the early morning or late evening.
Four field trials were conducted over a 2-yr period at Exeter (2005, 2006), Harrow (2006) and Ridgetown (2006), Ontario to evaluate the tolerance of pinto and small red Mexican (SRM) bean to the POST application of bentazon, imazethapyr, or their combination. Bentazon applied once or twice (to simulate a spray overlap in the field) at 840 g ai/ha and imazethapyr applied at 37.5 g/ha caused minimal injury (6% or less) in pinto and SRM bean and had no adverse effect on plant height, shoot dry weight, seed moisture content, and yield. Imazethapyr applied twice at 37.5 and all single and repeat applications containing 75 or 150 g/ha caused 15 to 44% injury to dry bean. These injuries were persistent and reduced plant height by as much as 21% and shoot dry weight by as much as 34%, but caused no adverse effect on maturity and yield, except for imazethapyr applied twice at 150 g/ha, which delayed maturity and reduced yield 16%. The addition of bentazon to imazethapyr applied as a tankmix reduced injury by as much as 23%. Imazethapyr at 37.5 or 75 g/ha combined with bentazon at 840 g/ha applied once or twice caused 3 to 23% injury but had no adverse effect on plant height, shoot dry weight, maturity, or yield. Two applications of imazethapyr at 150 g/ha plus bentazon at 840 g/ha reduced plant height 16% and shoot dry weight 28%.
Field trials were conducted from 2005 to 2007 at two locations in southwestern Ontario to investigate how weed control in corn was affected by the time of day that herbicides were applied. Weed control following the application of six POST herbicides (atrazine, bromoxynil, dicamba/diflufenzopyr, glyphosate, glufosinate, and nicosulfuron) at 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, 21:00, and 24:00 h was assessed. For many weed species herbicide efficacy was reduced when applications were made at 06:00, 21:00, and 24:00 h. Velvetleaf was the most sensitive to the time of day effect, followed by common ragweed, common lambsquarters, and redroot pigweed. Annual grasses were not as sensitive to application timing; however, control of barnyardgrass and green foxtail was reduced in some environments at 06:00 h and after 21:00 h. Only in the most severe cases was the grain yield of corn reduced due to decreased weed control. Daily changes in air temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity that cause species-specific physiological changes may account for the variation in weed control throughout the day. The results of this research suggest that there is a strong species-specific influence of ambient air temperature, light intensity, and leaf orientation on the efficacy of POST herbicides. These results should aid growers in applying herbicides when they are most efficacious, thus reducing costs associated with reduced efficacy.
Velvetleaf is a troublesome annual weed in many cropping systems of the United States and Canada. Differences in the growing environment of parent plants can influence the number, structure, germinability, and viability of seeds produced. Thus, the effects across a range of competitive environments and corn planting dates on velvetleaf seed production, germination, and seed coat weight were examined under field conditions. Seed production of velvetleaf increased with increasing biomass. Total velvetleaf reproductive output was reduced in competition with corn compared with monoculture stands. Corn planting date had no effect on the dormancy status of seeds, but increased competition from corn resulted in up to a 30% decrease in the proportion of seeds that were dormant. Seed and seed coat weights also decreased for plants of velvetleaf grown in competition with corn compared with those grown in monoculture. These findings suggest that velvetleaf plants growing in relatively noncompetitive environments, such as along field edges or in field areas with poor crop stands, are likely not only to produce a greater number of seeds but also a greater proportion of seeds that are dormant. This alteration in the dormancy status of velvetleaf seeds in the absence or presence of a crop provides unique opportunities for effective long-term management of the soil seedbank in this species, especially for velvetleaf individuals bordering fields or growing in fallow areas that might require more stringent control because of increased seed dormancy.
Deciding on the most efficacious PRE and POST herbicide options and their ideal application timing can be challenging for soybean producers. Climatic events during the 14 d before and after herbicide application can further complicate decisions because of their influence on herbicide effectiveness. Nine field trials were conducted at three locations in southwestern Ontario from 2003 to 2006, to determine the most effective PRE and POST soybean herbicides for control of common lambsquarters, common ragweed, green foxtail, and redroot pigweed. When precipitation was low at least 7 d before and after herbicide application weed control was reduced in treatments that included imazethapyr (PRE or POST) or flumetsulam/S-metolachlor (a premix formulation) (PRE). Cumulative precipitation during the 12 d after PRE application that exceeded the monthly average by at least 60% reduced common lambsquarters control when metribuzin was applied and green foxtail control when imazethapyr was applied. Delaying application of imazethapyr + bentazon to a later soybean growth stage decreased control of common lambsquarters and green foxtail; however, environmental conditions appeared to influence these results. Precipitation on the day of application decreased control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed more with quizalofop-p-ethyl + thifensulfuron-methyl + bentazon compared with imazethapyr + bentazon. Soybean yield varied among POST herbicide treatments because of reduced weed control. This research confirms that environmental conditions pre- and postapplication, as well as application timing, influence herbicide efficacy and should be considered by growers when selecting an herbicide program.
Spreading orach is an annual weed that colonizes roadsides, field edges, and increasingly, no-till agricultural fields. It produces dimorphic seeds with different levels of physiological dormancy, but little is known about the germination ecology of the two seed types. Field and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine seed responses to light and stratification, the pattern of seedling emergence in the field, and the effect of soil water content on the length of cold stratification required to break dormancy for each seed type. The large, brown seeds have three times the mass of the smaller, black seeds, primarily because of a larger embryo, but have a thinner seed coat. Germination of brown and black seeds in petri dishes was 98 and 90%, respectively, after stratification for 3 mo at 5 C, whereas germination of unstratified seeds was 19 and 12%, respectively. Light stimulated germination of both stratified and unstratified black seeds but did not increase germination in stratified brown seeds. Up to 40% of brown seeds germinated in situ during stratification, compared with only 2% for black seeds. Germination in petri dishes and emergence in the field were more rapid for brown seeds than for black seeds. Maximum germination of black seeds occurred after stratification for 2 or 3 mo at 5 C on soil that was waterlogged (pore-water matric potential, ψ = 0 kPa), wet (ψ = −0.38 kPa), or at field capacity (ψ = −10 kPa). For shorter periods of stratification, total germination and germination rate of black seeds declined as soil water content decreased from waterlogged to dry (ψ = −500 kPa). Seed dimorphism in spreading orach may provide a mechanism to enhance survival in uncertain or variable habitats such as disturbed agricultural fields.
Giant ragweed has become an increasingly important weed of arable land in many parts of North America. It is now a common weed of row crop production systems, a fact that can be attributed to earlier crop planting dates, reduced tillage, and the development of resistance to Group 2 and 9 herbicides. The propagation of giant ragweed seedlings for experimental purposes is a lengthy process because up to 90 d of stratification is often required to alleviate primary seed dormancy. The objective of this research was to evaluate physical, chemical, and cold stratification methods for alleviating seed dormancy in giant ragweed and reducing the length of cold stratification required. Results indicate that the most effective method for alleviating dormancy in seed of giant ragweed is to excise the embryo from its covering structures. By excising the embryo, 96% of viable giant ragweed seeds germinated with no stratification. In contrast, untreated seeds required a minimum of 6 wk of stratification to alleviate dormancy in a similar proportion of the population. Although excising embryos requires time and effort, the time savings relative to stratification make it an attractive method for propagating giant ragweed seedlings.
With the number of glyphosate-resistant weed species increasing in North America and a lack of new herbicide chemistries being developed, growers are shifting toward using older herbicides that are more expensive and may be less environmentally friendly. Therefore, to determine which weed management strategies are most cost effective and have the lowest impact on the environment we evaluated the efficacy, environmental impact, and the profitability of several weed management strategies in glyphosate-resistant soybean over a 3-yr period (2007 to 2009) at three locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada. No visible injury to soybean was observed with the herbicide treatments evaluated. A sequential application of glyphosate consistently provided high levels of weed control (99 to 100%) at 56 d after treatment in comparison with one- or two-pass herbicide programs. Soybean yield did not differ between the two-pass herbicide programs and glyphosate applied early POST; however, a yield benefit was found with a sequential application of glyphosate or a PRE herbicide followed by glyphosate compared with glyphosate applied only at late POST. The two-pass herbicide programs had higher environmental impact (EI) (> 23) than the one-pass herbicide programs (< 15), except when imazethapyr was followed by or tank-mixed with glyphosate, which had an equivalent EI (∼ 14) to the one-pass herbicide programs. Not surprisingly because of the low purchase price of glyphosate, gross margins were highest for treatments that included glyphosate. However, to reduce the selection pressure on glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, to reduce environmental impact, and to increase gross margins a combination of glyphosate with another mode of action would be most beneficial. In this study glyphosate + imazethapyr was the best alternative to a sequential two-pass glyphosate program.
Thirteen field experiments were conducted in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Ontario from 2005 to 2007 to determine the effects of simulated glyphosate drift followed by in-crop applications of nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron plus dicamba/diflufenzopyr or foramsulfuron plus bromoxynil plus atrazine on nontransgenic corn injury, height, stand count, shoot dry weight, and yield. Simulated glyphosate drift at 100 and 200 g/ha, resulted in 11 to 61% visual crop injury and a 19 to 45% decrease in corn height. Simulated glyphosate drift at 200 g/ha caused a reduction in shoot dry weight by 46%, stand count by 28% and yield by 49 to 56%. Generally, simulated glyphosate drift followed by the in-crop herbicides resulted in an additive response with respect to visual crop injury, height, stand count, shoot dry weight, and yield.
Common ragweed is one of the most important weeds in the soybean-producing areas of the United States and Canada. Recently, glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes have been reported in 15 states and one Canadian province. Reducing the proliferation of GR common ragweed biotypes is complicated by the high fecundity and complex seed germination behavior exhibited by this species. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of late herbicide applications for reducing seed production, seed weight, and seed viability of a GR common ragweed biotype. Herbicide treatments included: water control, glyphosate, 2,4-D, dicamba, 2,4-D plus glyphosate, and dicamba plus glyphosate. Treatments were applied at the appearance of male flower buds (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical industry scale [BBCH] 51) or at the early female flowering stage (BBCH 61 to 63). At BBCH 51, 2,4-D or dicamba applied alone or in a tank mix with glyphosate reduced seed production by an average of 80%. Conversely, seed production following these same treatments applied at BBCH 61 to 63 was not significantly different from when glyphosate was applied alone. At this stage of development, all herbicide treatments reduced seed viability relative to the control; however, treatments containing 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in significantly lower viability than when glyphosate was applied alone. These results suggest that the application of tank mixes containing 2,4-D or dicamba have the potential to limit seed production of GR common ragweed when applied on or before BBCH 51. The development of new technologies that facilitate the in-crop application of tank mixes containing 2,4-D or dicamba may therefore be an effective option for limiting population establishment, seedbank replenishment, and future spread of glyphosate-resistant alleles.
Establishing a clinical diagnosis of infection in residents of long-term–care facilities (LTCFs) is difficult. As a result, deciding when to initiate antibiotics can be particularly challenging. This article describes the establishment of minimum criteria for the initiation of antibiotics in residents of LTCFs. Experts in this area were invited to participate in a consensus conference. Using a modified delphi approach, a questionnaire and selected relevant articles were sent to participants who were asked to rank individual signs and symptoms with respect to their relative importance. Using the results of the weighting by participants, a modification of the nominal group process was used to achieve consensus. Criteria for initiating antibiotics for skin and soft-tissue infections, respiratory infections, urinary infections, and fever where the focus of infection is unknown were developed.
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