A revision of the Lower Devonian dalmanitid trilobites of the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) is presented. The subfamily Odontochilinae Šnajdr is considered a synonym of Dalmanitidae Vogdes. Twenty-one previously and five newly described (three in open nomenclature) species and subspecies occur in the Prague Basin from the lowermost Pragian (one problematic specimen possibly comes from the uppermost Lochkovian) to the Lower Emsian; the last questionable record is from the Upper Emsian. The species have been assigned to four genera and subgenera: Odontochile Hawle & Corda, Reussiana Šnajdr, Zlichovaspis (Zlichovaspis) Přibyl & Vaněk and Zlichovaspis (Devonodontochile) Šnajdr. These trilobites are considered as scavengers or opportunistic predators, living most of their lives as vagrant benthos burying in the muddy substrate to find organic remains. The first undoubted adult-like meraspid specimens are described.