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A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.
Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Jackson, TN, to evaluate the efficacy of integrating cover crops and POST herbicides in corn to control glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Crimson clover and hairy vetch were planted in the fall and accumulated greater than 1,600 kg ha−1 aboveground biomass by time of termination. Crimson clover and hairy vetch provided 62% and 58% Palmer amaranth control 14 d before application, respectively. POST herbicide treatments of glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, and glyphosate + atrazine were applied when Palmer amaranth reached 15 cm tall. The herbicide treatments provided greater than 95% control of Palmer amaranth 28 d after application. In addition to Palmer amaranth suppression, corn was taller at V5 and V7 following a hairy vetch cover crop. Hairy vetch and crimson clover residues provided early season weed suppression because of biomass accumulation. Palmer amaranth in the nontreated control plots reached 15 cm 4 and 3 d ahead of the cover-treated plots in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This could potentially increase POST herbicide-application flexibility for producers. Results of this trial also suggest that cover crops alone are not a means of season-long control of GR Palmer amaranth. From a herbicide resistance-management perspective, the integration of cover crops with herbicide mixtures that incorporate multiple sites of action should aid in mitigating the further selection of herbicide resistance in Palmer amaranth.
Little is known about the impact of corn and energy prices on the profitability of irrigating corn in Tennessee. We evaluated the probability of a positive net present value (NPV) for center-pivot irrigation in Tennessee corn production. Three corn price series were employed to evaluate the effects of the shift in corn prices on the feasibility of irrigation. The recent rise in corn prices increased the probability of NPV being positive for irrigation investment. Future corn prices will need to remain high for investment in center-pivot irrigation to remain profitable under Tennessee growing conditions.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after corn, the expected corn yield plateaus increased by 12% and 16% after cotton and soybeans, respectively. Expected net returns increased for corn after cotton and soybeans relative to corn after corn.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, the North-West Passage, a trade route from the Atlantic to the Pacific, had been sought for centuries without success. The Franklin expedition of 1845 became the latest victim, and Irish naval officer Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (1807–73) took part in the attempts to ascertain its fate. His ship, H.M.S. Investigator, spent the years 1850–4 in the Arctic, and in the course of their search for the lost expedition, the crew discovered the North-West Passage. Upon his return to England, following the loss of the Investigator to pack ice, McClure handed over his journals to author and fellow officer Sherard Osborn (1822–75), who prepared this narrative of the pioneering expedition. First published in 1856, the work remains a compelling account of Arctic exploration, revealing how McClure and his men survived four forbidding winters.