To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Accuracy of intracranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and reliability of interpretation are not well established compared to conventional selective catheter angiography. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of MRA in evaluation of intracranial vessels in acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients.
Twenty-nine patients (seven females, 22 males; median age 53) with acute stroke or TIA were enrolled into the study. All patients underwent both MRA using a 3 T clinical magnet and conventional angiography within 48 hours. Median time between MRA and angiography was 263 minutes. Conventional angiography preceded MRA in 15 cases. Fourteen patients received thrombolysis during MRA or angiography. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were obtained prior to the MR exam. One neuroradiologist rated all conventional angiograms, which were used as gold standard. Five observers, blinded to conventional angiography results and all clinical information except symptom side, rated the MR angiograms. Kappa statistics were used to assess reliability; contingency tables were used to assess accuracy of non-enhanced and enhanced MRA.
Two hundred and fifty two intracranial vessels were assessed. Agreement between raters was good for both non-enhanced (k=0.50) and gadolinium-enhanced (k=0.46) images. There were a total of 26 vessels occluded by DSA. Overall, the non-enhanced MRA showed sensitivity of 84.2% (95% CI 60.4-96.6) and specificity of 84.6% (95% CI 78.6-89.4). The enhanced MRA showed sensitivity of 69.2 (95% CI 38.6-90.9) and specificity of 73.6 (95% CI 65.5-80.7).
Magnetic resonance angiography is a good non-invasive screening tool for assessing intracranial vessel status in acute ischemic stroke. Angiography remains the gold standard for definitive assessment of the intracranial circulation.
We report the treatment and follow-up, including MRI, of two patients with idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis and review the English language literature, with emphasis on management and outcome in this rare disorder.
Methods and Materials:
The files of two patients were reviewed, with relevant histopathology and imaging (MRI). The first patient has been followed for sixteen years (the longest MRI-documented postoperative course reported for this condition) and the second for two years. The English language literature was reviewed, including a summary of all reported patients that have been followed with MRI or CT imaging.
Despite extensive investigation, no underlying etiology was determined in either patient. Histopathological studies revealed a chronic inflammatory dural infiltrate in both patients, with granulomas in the first but not the second patient. The first patient underwent surgery twice and has remained stable for sixteen years, despite persistent neurologic deficits. The second patient was managed with dexamethasone after a surgical biopsy, and experienced complete resolution of all neurological deficits and abnormalities seen with MRI.
Although prompt and extensive surgery has been recommended for this condition, the results from our second patient indicate that complete remission can be achieved in some patients with biopsy and steroid therapy. This also supports the view that autoimmune mechanisms underlie idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. The first patient illustrates that extensive laminectomies may be an effective therapeutic option but chronic discomfort may result. If extensive surgery must be performed, laminoplasty should be done because of the potential for reduced pain and improved long-term spinal stability.