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The formation and growth of soot particles in combustion systems represents an area of significant research interest. Critical to progress in this area has been the development of suitable optical diagnostic techniques. Principal among these has been the utilization of laser light scattering techniques to obtain particle size and concentration information. When combined with measurements of other quantities such as the velocity, the resulting spatially and temporally resolved measurements can be used to examine particle processes such as coagulation and surface growth. In the present work, the results from studies conducted in laminar diffusion flames involving laser based measurements of the soot particle and velocity fields are reviewed. As an example of the utility of such an approach, these results are used to examine the evolution of the particle surface area for a series of simple hydrocarbon fuels. The results indicate that the available surface area varies strongly with the fuel molecular structure. However, the specific surface growth rate is observed to be similar for all the fuels studied.
Spray pyrolysis offers a number of opportunities for the synthesis of either solid or hollow spherical particles. As predicted by the evaporation model, particles with different shell thicknesses can be obtained depending on the concentration gradient at the onset of precipitation. If the precipitate shell has a sufficiently high permeability for removal of the remaining solvent, then the shell can be preserved and a hollow particle obtained. By drying at a lower temperature solid particles are readily formed from precursor salts but hollow particle formation by SP at these low temperatures imposes demanding heating rate requirements.
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