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Emerging from the warehouse of knowledge about terrestrial ecosystem functioning and the application of the systems ecology paradigm, exemplified by the power of simulation modeling, tremendous strides have been made linking the interactions of the land, atmosphere, and water locally to globally. Through integration of ecosystem, atmospheric, soil, and more recently social science interactions, plausible scenarios and even reasonable predictions are now possible about the outcomes of human activities. The applications of that knowledge to the effects of changing climates, human-caused nitrogen enrichment of ecosystems, and altered UV-B radiation represent challenges addressed in this chapter. The primary linkages addressed are through the C, N, S, and H2O cycles, and UV-B radiation. Carbon dioxide exchanges between land and the atmosphere, N additions and losses to and from lands and waters, early studies of SO2 in grassland ecosystem, and the effects of UV-B radiation on ecosystems have been mainstays of research described in this chapter. This research knowledge has been used in international and national climate assessments, for example the IPCC, US National Climate Assessment, and Paris Climate Accord. Likewise, the knowledge has been used to develop concepts and technologies related to sustainable agriculture, C sequestration, and food security.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.
Experiments are not models of cooperation; instead, they demonstrate the presence of the ethical and other-regarding predispositions that often motivate cooperation and the punishment of free-riders. Experimental behavior predicts subjects' cooperation in the field. Ethnographic studies in small-scale societies without formal coercive institutions demonstrate that disciplining defectors is both essential to cooperation and often costly to the punisher.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ANX) are debilitating and prevalent conditions that often co-occur in adolescence and young adulthood. The leading theoretical models of their co-morbidity include the direct causation model and the shared etiology model. The present study compared these etiological models of MDD–ANX co-morbidity in a large, prospective, non-clinical sample of adolescents tracked through age 30.
Logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between ANX and MDD at Time 1 (T1). In prospective analyses, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine T1 predictors of subsequent disorder onset, including risk factors specific to each disorder or common to both disorders. Prospective predictive effect of a lifetime history of one disorder (e.g. MDD) on the subsequent onset of the second disorder (e.g. ANX) was then examined. This step was repeated while controlling for common risk factors.
The findings supported relatively distinct profiles of risk between MDD and ANX depending on order of development. Whereas the shared etiology model best explained co-morbid cases in which MDD preceded ANX, direct causation was supported for co-morbid cases in which ANX preceded MDD.
Consistent with previous research, significant cross-sectional and prospective associations were found between MDD and ANX. The results of the present study suggest that different etiological models may characterize the co-morbidity between MDD and ANX based upon the temporal order of onset. Implications for classification and prevention efforts are discussed.
La Convention sur l'interdiction ou la limitation de l'emploi de certaines armes classiques qui peuvent être considérées comme produisant des effets traumatiques excessifs ou comme frappant sans discrimination (du 10 octobre 1980) a établi le cadre juridique pour non seulement interdire certaines armes particulièrement cruelles mais encore, et surtout, en limiter l'emploi. l'article retrace l'histoire de ce traité et rappelle l'évolution qu'il a connue depuis 1980 à travers, notamment, l'adoption d'un nouveau protocole sur les armes à laser aveuglantes et le renforcement du Protocole II (relatif aux mines terrestres). Toutefois, après l'interdiction complète des mines antipersonnel par le traité d'Ottawa en 1997, peut-on encore justifier l'approche choisie par la Convention de 1980, à savoir la limitation dans l'emploi ? L'auteur répond par l'affirmative.
The 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) was opened for signature on 10 October 1980 and entered into force on 2 December 1983 (six months after the deposit of the twentieth ratification). Following several years of virtual obscurity, interest in the CCW increased in the early 1990s, partly as a consequence of greater interest in the potential of the CCW in reducing the inhumane consequences of anti-personnel landmines (APLs). This led to the convening of the First Review Conference (Revcon) in 1995/6. One of the decisions taken by the first Revcon was that a second Revcon should be convened within five years to review the operation of the CCW. This indicated that for many states the CCW had come to assume a greater importance than they had accorded it during the preceding 15 years, as well as their acceptance that APLs and other weapons covered by the CCW warranted closer attention. In the lead-up to the second Revcon, which was convened in December 2001, major issues under consideration included the scope of the CCW and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), including cluster bombs and other forms of unexploded ordnance not covered by existing international law, and strengthened provisions relating to antivehicle landmines (AVMs).
Myotonic dystrophy is caused by an expanded CTG
repeat in the 3′ untranslated region of the DM protein
kinase (DMPK) gene. The expanded repeat triggers the nuclear
retention of mutant DMPK transcripts, but the resulting
underexpression of DMPK probably does not fully account
for the severe phenotype. One proposed disease mechanism
is that nuclear accumulation of expanded CUG repeats may
interfere with nuclear function. Here we show by thermal
melting and nuclease digestion studies that CUG repeats
form highly stable hairpins. Furthermore, CUG repeats bind
to the dsRNA-binding domain of PKR, the dsRNA-activated
protein kinase. The threshold for binding to PKR is ∼15
CUG repeats, and the affinity increases with longer repeat
lengths. Finally, CUG repeats that are pathologically expanded
can activate PKR in vitro. These results raise the possibility
that the disease mechanism could be, in part, a gain of
function by mutant DMPK transcripts that involves sequestration
or activation of dsRNA binding proteins.
En este centenario de la I Conferencia Internacional de la Paz de La Haya, es oportuno reflexionar sobre la influencia de los principios humanitarios en la negociación de tratados multilaterales sobre control de armamentos. Dos de los tres temas de la conferencia de 1899 fueron las leyes de la guerra (o derecho internacional humanitario) y el control de armas y el desarme. No cabe duda de que parte de la motivación de 1899, y ciertamente de la II Conferencia Internacional de la Paz de La Haya de 1907, al considerar estos dos temas, fue la preocupación humanitaria por aliviar el sufrimiento de las víctimas del conflicto armado2. Tras 100 años de elaboratión de leyes en ambos émbitos, el aniversario de 1999 es oportuno para evaluar hasta qué punto los principios humanitarios han seguido influyendo en los esfuerzos para regular los efectos de determinadas armas.
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