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Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
The recent trend within the Agricultural Livestock Industry away from employing permanent staff to utilising casual staff as a result of a decline in profitability may have implications for the welfare of livestock. This factor has not been examined in detail even though there are a number of studies concerned with the role of the stockperson (for example, Duncan and Fraser, 1993). From the limited number of studies performed, it is likely that the interaction between the stock-person and the animal is negative as adverse behavioural patterns are identifiable, even if the stock-person is experienced. The study reported compares the behaviour of ewes being managed by an experienced stock-person or by students undergoing training.
The Tasmanian Cenozoic macrofossil record is relatively rich, and changes that have occurred in the vegetation of the region are becoming increasingly well understood. The record is essentially one of rainforest elements, especially in the Paleogene, but taxa that are now common in sclerophyllous heathlands and woodlands are increasingly prevalent in Quaternary sediments.
Extant Tasmanian rainforest is renowned for its beauty, and botanists have long recognised its marked taxonomic and structural similarity to other southern hemisphere ‘cool temperate’ forests of New Zealand and Chile. These are generally dominated by Nothofagus trees, their boughs laden with lichens and verdant shrouds of bryophytes. Other links are often made by phytogeographers to similar forests in high altitude regions of northern New South Wales and the much more species-rich vegetation of the generally montane regions of New Guinea and New Caledonia where Nothofagus also grows. A striking aspect of these forests is the presence of a variety of conifers, principally Podocarpaceae, but also Cupressaceae and Araucariaceae. In Tasmania the Araucariaceae are extinct, but the region is unique in the southern hemisphere in having a genus of Taxodiaceae, Athrotaxis. Athrotaxis spp. are often associated with Australia's only winter deciduous plant, Nothofagus gunnii, in montane regions of the island. The macrofossil record shows conclusively that the current diversity of Tasmania's woody rainforest flora is very much lower than at any other time during the Cenozoic. It confirms that there are strong floristic links to regions as widespread as eastern and southwestern mainland Australia, southern South America, New Zealand and New Guinea. In fact, Tasmanian Paleogene floras contain a wealth of taxa that are closely related to plants now confined to these regions.
Apart from the relatively large tracts of rainforest in Tasmania, closed forest lacking eucalypts is now confined to small patches along the east coast of Australia. In contrast to mainland Australia, Tasmania is relatively mountainous and has a well-developed woody alpine vegetation, dominated by shrubs of the Asteraceae, Epacridaceae, Myrtaceae and Proteaceae.
There is now expert consensus that directly observing the work of trainee therapists vs. relying upon self-report of sessions, is critical to providing the accurate feedback required to attain a range of competencies. In spite of this expert consensus however, and the broadly positive attitudes towards video review among supervisees, video feedback methods remain under-utilized in clinical supervision. This paper outlines some of the weaknesses that affect feedback based solely on self-report methods, before introducing some of the specific benefits that video feedback methods can offer the training and supervision context. It is argued that video feedback methods fit seamlessly into CBT supervision providing direct, accessible, effective, efficient and accurate observation of the learning situation, and optimizing the chances for accurate self-reflections and planning further improvements in performance. To demonstrate the utility of video feedback techniques to CBT supervision, two specific video feedback techniques are introduced and described: the Give-me-5 technique and the I-spy technique. Case examples of CBT supervision using the two techniques are provided and explored, and guidance as to the supervision contexts in which each of the two techniques are suitable, individually, and in tandem, are outlined. Finally, best practice guidelines for the use of video feedback techniques in supervision are outlined.
The linear polarization of the Crab pulsar as a function of pulse phase was observed by the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope in March, 1993. Observations were obtained in a bandpass centered on 2770 A using a 0.25 ms sample time, corresponding to a time resolution of 0.0075 in pulse phase. The UV polarization of the pulsar [Fig. 1] is strikingly similar to that observed in the visible (cf. Smith et al. 1988). The same values of polarization and the same swing of position angle occur through the main and secondary pulses. The polarization pulse profile must be essentially wavelength independent at frequencies above the infrared.
The incidence of recreational water-associated outbreaks in the United States has significantly increased, driven, at least in part, by outbreaks both caused by Cryptosporidium and associated with treated recreational water venues. Because of the parasite's extreme chlorine tolerance, transmission can occur even in well-maintained treated recreational water venues (e.g. pools) and a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak can evolve into a community-wide outbreak associated with multiple recreational water venues and settings (e.g. childcare facilities). In August 2004 in Auglaize County, Ohio, multiple cryptosporidiosis cases were identified and anecdotally linked to pool A. Within 5 days of the first case being reported, pool A was hyperchlorinated to achieve 99·9% Cryptosporidium inactivition. A case-control study was launched to epidemiologically ascertain the outbreak source 11 days later. A total of 150 confirmed and probable cases were identified; the temporal distribution of illness onset was peaked, indicating a point-source exposure. Cryptosporidiosis was significantly associated with swimming in pool A (matched odds ratio 121·7, 95% confidence interval 27·4–∞) but not with another venue or setting. The findings of this investigation suggest that proactive implementation of control measures, when increased Cryptosporidium transmission is detected but before an outbreak source is epidemiologically ascertained, might prevent a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak from evolving into a community-wide outbreak.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers face many ethical issues while providing prehospital care to children and adults. Although provider judgment plays a large role in the resolution of conflicts at the scene, it is important to establish protocols and policies, when possible, to address these high-risk and complex situations. This article describes some of the common situations with ethical underpinnings encountered by EMS personnel and managers including denying or delaying transport of patients with non-emergency conditions, use of lights and sirens for patient transport, determination of medical futility in the field, termination of resuscitation, restriction of EMS provider duty hours to prevent fatigue, substance abuse by EMS providers, disaster triage and difficulty in switching from individual care to mass-casualty care, and the challenges of child maltreatment recognition and reporting. A series of ethical questions are proposed, followed by a review of the literature and, when possible, recommendations for management.
BeckerTK, Gausche-HillM, AsweganAL, BakerEF, BookmanKJ, BradleyRN, De LorenzoRA, SchoenwetterDJ for the American College of Emergency Physicians’ EMS Committee. Ethical Challenges in Emergency Medical Services: Controversies and Recommendations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(5):1-10.
Longitudinal, patient-level data on resource use and costs after an ischemic stroke are lacking in Canada. The objectives of this analysis were to calculate costs for the first year post-stroke and determine the impact of disability on costs.
The Economic Burden of Ischemic Stroke (BURST) Study was a one-year prospective study with a cohort of ischemic stroke patients recruited at 12 Canadian stroke centres. Clinical history, disability, health preference and resource utilization information was collected at discharge, three months, six months and one year. Resources included direct medical costs (2009 CAN$) such as emergency services, hospitalizations, rehabilitation, physician services, diagnostics, medications, allied health professional services, homecare, medical/assistive devices, changes to residence and paid caregivers, as well as indirect costs. Results were stratified by disability measured at discharge using the modified Rankin Score (mRS): non-disabling stroke (mRS 0-2) and disabling stroke (mRS 3-5).
We enrolled 232 ischemic stroke patients (age 69.4 ± 15.4 years; 51.3% male) and 113 (48.7%) were disabled at hospital discharge. The average annual cost was $74,353; $107,883 for disabling strokes and $48,339 for non-disabling strokes.
An average annual cost for ischemic stroke was calculated in which a disabling stroke was associated with a two-fold increase in costs compared to NDS. Costs during the hospitalization to three months phase were the highest contributor to the annual cost. A “back of the envelope” calculation using 38,000 stroke admissions and the average annual cost yields $2.8 billion as the burden of ischemic stroke.
In this paper we shall look at a technique, known as impurity free vacancy diffusion (IFVD) for selectively altering the optoelectronic response of quantum well material after growth with a view to monolithic device integration. We will discuss the mechanism, practical considerations and some possible applications.
We have evaluated the use of HIF vapor cleaning using an Advantage Edge 2000 commercial etcher as a preclean for low temperature UHV/CVD silicon epitaxy (LTE). Surface analysis by contact angle, XPS and Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) measurements indicate that vapor HF treated surfaces have higher levels of impurities and are less stable than surfaces dipped in 10:1 diluted HF. Interfacial SIMS measurements and defect analysis using plan-view TEM after epitaxial growth indicate that the vapor treated samples also had higher levels of interfacial oxygen and surface defects. The results indicate that vapor HF precleaning is less effective for LTE than an aqueous HF dip since it provides poorer quality hydrogen passivation of the silicon surface.
Surface treatment experiments using intense pulsed ion beams have demonstrated new capabilities for materials surface treatment. These experiments have confirmed corrosion resistance, surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, surface cleaning and oxide layer removal by rapid melting and resolidification. Deposition of beam energy in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies (1-10 J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling (109-1010 K/sec) and resolidification of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. At higher intensities (≥20 J/cm2), this technology can provide rapid ablation of material from targets followed by rapid, congruent deposition of polycrystalline thin films on substrates. This technology uses high energy pulsed (40–400 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2–20 micrometers of the surface of materials.
Three important current areas of research in the field of international comparisons are the construction of price indexes at the basic heading level, price indexes at higher levels of aggregation, and the linking of comparisons across regions. We consider recent innovations in each of these areas. These innovations have largely arisen out of International Comparisons Program (ICP) 2005, and hence we discuss them in this context. We give particular emphasis to the construction of price indexes at the basic heading level, because we believe it is here that the biggest problems lie. For example, the apparently anomalous results obtained for China and India in ICP 2005 can be traced back to problems at the basic heading level. We also highlight some inconsistencies in current ICP methodology and some promising areas for future research that warrant closer scrutiny in the next round of ICP.