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Icequakes at or near the bed of a glacier have the potential to allow us to investigate the interaction of ice with the underlying till or bedrock. Understanding this interaction is important for studying basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams, a critical process in ice dynamics models used to constrain future sea-level rise projections. However, seismic observations on glaciers can be dominated by seismic energy from surface crevassing. We present a method of automatically detecting basal icequakes and discriminating them from surface crevassing, comparing this method to a commonly used spectrum-based method of detecting icequakes. We use data from Skeidararjökull, an outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap, South-East Iceland, to demonstrate that our method outperforms the commonly used spectrum-based method. Our method detects a higher number of basal icequakes, has a lower rate of incorrectly identifying crevassing as basal icequakes and detects an additional, spatially independent basal icequake cluster. We also show independently that the icequakes do not originate from near the glacier surface. We conclude that the method described here is more effective than currently implemented methods for detecting and discriminating basal icequakes from surface crevassing.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Catatonia is an underrecognized neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting approximately 10% of individuals hospitalized on inpatient psychiatric units. First-line treatments for this condition include benzodiazepines (BZD) and/or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, 20-40% of individuals do not respond to BZD alone and ECT is not always accessible. Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been used to treat catatonia in these circumstances. Here, we review the literature pertaining to the efficacy and safety of SGA in the treatment of catatonia.
We conducted a PubMed search for articles linking catatonia to antipsychotics, under the search heading “catatonia” or “kahlbaum” and “risperidone”, “amisulpride”, “iloperidone”, “olanzapine”, “aripiprazole”, “paliperidone”, “clozapine”, “brexpiprazole”, or “cariprazine”. Reports commenting on SGA treatment efficacy and/or their role in the development of catatonia were included in the analysis. Selected articles were reviewed for patient demographics, psychiatric/medical history, symptoms, cause of catatonia and treatment, and co-administered agents. For each SGA, we calculated the number of cases in which catatonia was likely improved with antipsychotic treatment, and the number of cases in which catatonia was precipitated or worsened with antipsychotic treatment (improved/worsened ratio). Case data was assessed using the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.
At the time this abstract was written, we reviewed 480 of the original 507 articles. One hundred and seventeen of the 480 met inclusion criteria. There was one randomized controlled trial (RCT), five prospective studies, four retrospective studies and 107 case reports. Of all reviewed literature quetiapine (34:3, 92%), aripiprazole (16:2, 89%), amisulpride (18:1, 95%), andclozapine (19:1, 95%) had the highest improved/worsened ratio, conversely paliperidone (0:5, 0%) had the lowest improved/worsened ratio.
Of the available literature quetiapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, and clozapine were found to be relatively safe andeffective as treatment options in catatonia, while palipderidone was found to have reports pointing to its role in the development/worsening, but none on the improvement, of catatonia. These results need to be interpreted with caution. In the majority of cases where SGA’s were effective, patients were co- treated with other pharmacologic agents (most frequently benzodiazepines), making it difficult to assess the role of the antipsychotic alone. Also, given that the preponderance of studies were case reports, publication bias may be an important limitation. Further studies are needed to examine the safety and efficacy of SGA in treating catatonia.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the US, with a lifetime prevalence of 2.8%. Disturbances in reward circuitry have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Dasotraline is a novel and potent dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with slow absorption and a long half-life resulting in stable plasma concentrations over 24 hours with once-daily dosing. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flexibly-dosed dasotraline (4, 6, and 8 mg/day) vs placebo in adults with moderate to severe BED over a 12-week period (NCT02564588).
Key inclusion criteria included moderate to severe BED based on a history of ≥2 binge eating days/week for ≥6 months prior to screening, and ≥3 binge eating days for each of2 weeks prior to randomization, as documented in participant’s binge eating diary. Patients were randomized 1:1 to flexibly-dosed dasotraline (4, 6, 8 mg/day) or placebo. Theprimary endpoint was change from baseline (CFB) in the number of binge eating days per week at Week 12. Key secondary endpoints were: CFB in Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) Scale at Week 12; CFB in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating (YBOCS-BE) at Week 12; and the percentage ofsubjects with a 4-week cessation from binge eating prior to Week 12 or end of treatment (EOT). Except for 4-week cessation, the other three variables were analyzed using amixed model for repeated measures (MMRM).
317 subjects (84% female) received ≥1 dose of study medication (mean age was 38.2 years; mean number of binge eating days per week, 4.25; mean CGI-S score, 4.5; mean BMI, 34.7). The MMRM analysis of CFB at Week 12 in the number of binge days/week yielded a significant mean difference of –0.99 (95% CI: –0.65 to –1.33; p<0.001) infavour of dasotraline (–3.74 in the dasotraline group vs –2.75 in the placebo group). All three key secondary endpoints were met at Week 12 or EOT: 46.5% of subjects in thedasotraline group achieved at least 4 consecutive weeks’ cessation from binge eating vs 20.6% in the placebo group (p<0.001); CFB in CGI-S and YBOCS-BE scores were also statistically significant in favour of dasotraline (p<0.001). The treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) that occurred more frequently with dasotraline vs placebo at >2% incidence included: insomnia (44.6% vs 8.1%), dry mouth (27.4% vs 5.0%), decreased appetite (19.7% vs 6.9%), anxiety (17.8% vs 2.5%), nausea (12.7% vs 6.9%) and decreased body weight (12.1% vs 0%). Discontinuation due to AEs occurred in 11.5% of patients taking dasotraline vs 2.5% taking placebo.
In adults with moderate to severe BED, there were highly significant and clinically meaningful reductions with dasotraline vs placebo in the frequency of binge eating, global severity of illness, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms related to binge eating. These results suggest dasotraline may offer a novel, well-tolerated and efficacious treatmentfor BED.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
We present aperture synthesis maps of the CO J=2-1 emission in the central region of the spiral galaxy IC 342. The 4” resolution maps reveal emission that is a factor of two brighter than the CO (1-0) emission mapped at the same resolution. Since the CO (2-1) emission is likely to be optically thick, the high ratio is probably due to the fact that the two transitions sample different cloud layers in externally heated clouds. The high signal to noise of the maps indicates that CO (2-1) will be a powerful tool in the study of gas in galaxies.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
We report the synthesis of photoreactive and light-emitting liquid crystals which can be patterned photolithographically to form polymer networks for use in organic light-emitting diodes. The resolution capability of the photopatterning is investigated using a phase mask of period one micron to spatially modulate the irradiance of ultraviolet light incident to the monomer thin film. A surface relief grating of the same period and depth 85 nm is formed on exposure and washing. An OLED incorporating a novel green light-emitting liquid-crystal has a luminous efficiency of 4.3 lm W-1 at 100 cd m-2 and gives a luminance of 990 cd m-2 at an operating voltage of 10 V.