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Ocular complaints prompt a significant number of emergency department (ED) visits, and they can range from benign to sight-threatening. Detailed fundoscopic examination is difficult, even for experienced providers. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly utilized in the ED for numerous applications, including ocular evaluation. We present a case in which ocular POCUS was used to diagnose a submacular hemorrhage in a patient who presented with acute painless loss of vision. Ocular POCUS can be readily employed to assess for myriad clinically significant pathologies.
Airborne-Pseudolite (A-PL) systems have been proposed to augment Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) in difficult areas where GNSS-only navigation cannot be guaranteed due to signal blockages, signal jamming, etc. One of the challenges in realising such a system is to determine the coordinates of the A-PLs to a high accuracy. The GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is a possible alternative to differential GNSS techniques such as those that generate Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) solutions. To enhance the A-PL positioning performance in GNSS challenged areas, it is assumed that inter-PL range measurements are also used in addition to GNSS measurements. When processing these new measurements, cross-correlations among A-PL estimated states introduced during measurement updates need to be accounted for so as to obtain consistent estimated states. In this paper, a distributed algorithm based on a Split Covariance Intersection Filter (SCIF) is proposed. Three commonly used means of implementing the SCIF algorithm are analysed. Another challenge is that real-time GNSS PPP relies on the use of precise satellite orbit and clock information. One problem is that these real-time orbit and satellite clock error corrections may not be always available, especially for moving A-PLs in challenging environments when signal outages occur. To maintain A-PL positioning accuracy using GNSS PPP, it is necessary to predict these error corrections during outages. Different prediction models for orbit and clock error corrections are discussed. A test was conducted to evaluate the A-PL positioning based on GNSS PPP and inter-PL ranges, as well as the performance of error prediction modelling. It was found that GNSS PPP combined with inter-PL ranges could achieve better converged positioning accuracy and a reduction in convergence time of GNSS PPP. However, the performance of GNSS PPP with inter-PL ranges was degraded by observing A-PLs with limited positioning accuracy. Although the performance improvement achieved by the SCIF-based distributed algorithms was smaller than that by the centralised algorithm, greater robustness in dealing with deteriorated observed A-PLs' trajectory data was demonstrated by the distributed algorithms. In addition, short-term prediction models were analysed, and their performance was shown to reduce the effect of error correction outages on A-PL positioning accuracy.
As a key indicator of childhood malnutrition, few studies have focused on stunting in relation to various socio-economic factors in which disadvantaged groups face in China. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study incorporating forty-two rural counties in seven western provinces of China in 2011. In total, 5196 children aged 6–23 months were included. We used Poisson regression to examine risk factors for inadequate minimum dietary diversity (MDD) and stunting status, respectively. Overall, the proportion of children not meeting MDD was 44·5 %. Children aged 6–11 months (adjusted risk ratio (ARR)=1·39; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·49), with two siblings (ARR=1·09; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·17), delivered at home (ARR=1·30; 95 % CI 1·20, 1·41), within Yi (ARR=1·15; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·28) or Uighur groups (ARR=1·52; 95 % CI 1·36, 1·71), with an illiterate caregiver (ARR=2·12; 95 % CI 1·52, 2·96), receiving lowest income (ARR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·50), and with breast-feeding in the last day (ARR=1·55; 95 % CI 1·44, 1·66) were more likely to have inadequate MDD. Moreover, inadequate MDD was positively associated with stunting (ARR=1·15; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·31). Other determinants for stunting were age, sex, place of delivery, minority group and income. The stunting prevalence and proportion of inadequate MDD remained high in Western China; to reduce stunting rates of ethnic minorities, further efforts addressing appropriate dietary feeding practices are needed, especially within these groups.
Free markets alone do not work effectively to solve certain kinds of human problems, such as education, old age care, or disaster relief. Nor have markets ever been the sole solution to the psychological challenges of death, suffering, or injustice. Instead, we find a major role for the non-market institutions of society - the family, the state, and social institutions. The first in-depth anthropological study of charities in contemporary Chinese societies, this book focuses on the unique ways that religious groups have helped to solve the problems of social well-being. Using comparative case studies in China, Taiwan and Malaysia during the 1980s and onwards, it identifies new forms of religious philanthropy as well as new ideas of social 'good', including different forms of political merit-making, new forms of civic selfhood, and the rise of innovative social forms, including increased leadership by women. The book finally argues that the spread of these ideas is an incomplete process, with many alternative notions of goodness continuing to be influential.