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Nitrogen fixation from pasture legumes is a fundamental process that contributes to the profitability and sustainability of dryland agricultural systems. The aim of this research was to determine whether well-managed pastures, based on aerial-seeding pasture legumes, could partially or wholly meet the nitrogen (N) requirements of subsequent grain crops in an annual rotation. Fifteen experiments were conducted in Western Australia with wheat, barley or canola crops grown in a rotation that included the pasture legume species French serradella (Ornithopus sativus), biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus), bladder clover (Trifolium spumosum), annual medics (Medicago spp.) and the non-aerial seeded subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum). After the pasture phase, five rates of inorganic N fertilizer (Urea, applied at 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg/ha) were applied to subsequent cereal and oil seed crops. The yields of wheat grown after serradella, biserrula and bladder clover, without the use of applied N fertilizer, were consistent with the target yields for growing conditions of the trials (2.3 to 5.4 t/ha). Crop yields after phases of these pasture legume species were similar or higher than those following subterranean clover or annual medics. The results of this study suggest a single season of a legume-dominant pasture may provide sufficient organic N in the soil to grow at least one crop, without the need for inorganic N fertilizer application. This has implications for reducing inorganic N requirements and the carbon footprint of cropping in dryland agricultural systems.
With an annual growth in travel demand of about 5% globally, managing the environmental impact is a challenge. In 2019, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) issued emission reduction targets, including well-to-wake greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduced at least 50% from 2005 levels by 2050. This discusses several technologies from an aircraft design perspective that can contribute to achieving these targets. One thing is certain: aircraft will look different in the future. The Transonic Truss-Braced Wing and Flying V configurations are promising significant efficiency improvements over conventional configurations. Electric propulsion, in various architectures, is becoming a feasible option for general aviation and commuter aircraft. It will be a growing field of aviation with zero-emissions flight and opportunities for special missions. Lastly, this paper discusses methods and design processes that include all relevant disciplines to ensure that the aircraft is optimised as a complete system. While empirical methods are essential for initial design, Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) incorporates models and simulations integrated in an optimisation environment to capture critical trade-offs. Concurrent design places domain experts in one site to facilitate collaboration, interaction, and joint decision-making, and to ensure all disciplines are equally considered. It is supported by a Collaborative Design Facility (CDF), an information technology facility with connected hardware and software tools for design analysis.
The rapidly growing field of immunopsychiatry combines expertise and insights from immunology, psychiatry and neuroscience to understand the role of inflammation and other immune processes in causing and treating mental illness. This represents a major shift in mental health science, traditionally focused on psychological and neuronal mechanisms of depression, psychosis and dementia. This book provides the first comprehensive overview of recent, inter-disciplinary research linking disordered function of the immune system to the brain and mental illness. It offers a broad and deep perspective on the implications of immune system involvement in psychiatric disorders, including a balanced focus on basic science and clinical applications. Chapters cover the scientific evidence linking immune processes to major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and dementia. An invaluable guide for graduate students, doctors in training, scientific researchers and others interested in the link between the immune system and mental health.
This paper examines grass-fed beef producer preferences for cattle traits using data from a mail survey of 384 U.S. grass-fed beef producers. Conjoint analysis and Likert scale questions were used to determine preferences. Generally, results indicated that producers preferred easy-to-handle, heavy, black, and relatively lower-priced feeders raised from their own cows. The Kernel density figures for source, color, and temperament confirm the mixed logit standard deviation estimates that suggest heterogeneity in producer preferences.