To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We discuss nucleosynthesis within 6 M⊙ models with Z = 0.02, 0.008 and 0.004. The emphasis is on the AGB phase of evolution, with particular reference to thermal pulses and Hot Bottom Burning. We find strong CN cycling, with substantial Al production, especially at low metallicities.
In this sense I can consider myself a typical East European. It seems to be true that his differentia specifica can be boiled down to a lack of form – both inner and outer … he always remains an adolescent, governed by a sudden ebb or flow of inner chaos. Form is achieved in stable societies … The things that surround us in childhood need no justification, they are self-evident. If, however, they whirl about like particles in a kaleidoscope, ceaselessly changing position, it takes no small amount of energy simply to plant one's feet on solid ground without falling.
Czesław Miłosz, the Nobel prize-winning poet, born in what is now Lithuania in 1911, grew up in the city now called Vilnius during and after the First World War. He became a Polish citizen involuntarily when the city he knew as Wilno was forcibly incorporated into the Polish state in 1919, moving to a Warsaw he neither knew nor loved after Wilno became Vilnius when it was again forcibly incorporated, this time into Lithuania, as a consequence of the Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact. After 1945 he briefly served the Polish People's Republic as a diplomat, before heading for the United States, where he continued to write his poetry in the Polish language that was his native tongue, but which did not necessarily define his national identity.
Poland's submission to Sweden was more apparent than real. The scale of the surrender should not be exaggerated: while some leading magnates such as Radziwitt, Opaliński, Koniecpolski and the future king, John Sobieski, went over to Sweden, the majority remained uncommitted. About thirty senators went into exile; others resisted, such as Jakub and Ludwik Weiher in Royal Prussia; many did nothing, waiting to see how the situation would develop. The Leszczyńskis, who blamed John Casimir for what they saw as a needless war and who appeared keen in July and August to secure his abdication, could not obtain satisfactory terms from Sweden. Lubomirski, long an opponent of John Casimir, also failed to reach agreement despite protracted negotiations during the siege of Cracow.
Poland had been easy to conquer; with an army of 36,000 it might not prove easy to hold. The victory was by no means as complete as it seemed: Charles X had sought above all to seize Royal Prussia, but proved unable to take Putzig and Marienburg, which held out until the spring, or Danzig, which he never took. The loyalty of those who had already accepted Swedish overlordship, many of them reluctantly, depended on Charles's behaviour. Faith in Sweden was rapidly disappointed, however.
Despite the uncertainty of the international situation and its inability to find a suitable candidate, the Court remained committed to an election vivente rege. This has long been seen as a crucial and fateful error. By concentrating on the election, it is argued, the Court squandered a unique opportunity to restore the Commonwealth's political system to health through reforming diet procedure and, above all, through sweeping away the pernicious liberum veto. Louise Marie is usually seen as being chiefly to blame, as the driving-force behind the French election campaign which stimulated the formation of pro-French and pro-Austrian parties and diverted attention from reform of the diet, seen as the essential precondition for strengthening the state, thus squandering the favourable situation which had arisen since the Muscovite and Swedish invasions.
From November 1655, there was certainly an encouraging atmosphere with regard to reform, and no shortage of proposals to limit or abolish the liberum veto. Vidoni wrote in January 1656 of the goodwill shown by senators, which provided an opportunity to improve the state of the Commonwealth now that the king had returned to Poland. Des Noyers reported that: ‘All our senators and all our nobles are agreed that they must change their method of government.’ Reform was first discussed at Oppeln in November, although no firm decisions were taken.