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Understanding the distribution of gas in and around galaxies is vital for our interpretation of galaxy formation and evolution. As part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) we have observed the neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in and around the nearby Local Group galaxy M33 to a greater depth than previous observations. As part of this project we investigated the absence of optically detected dwarf galaxies in its neighbourhood, which is contrary to predictions of galaxy formation models. We observed 22 discrete clouds, 11 of which were previously undetected and none of which have optically detected counterparts. We find one particularly interesting hydrogen cloud, which has many similar characteristics to hydrogen distributed in the disk of a galaxy. This cloud, if it is at the distance of M33, has a HI mass of around 107 M⊙ and a diameter of 18 kpc, making it larger in size than M33 itself.
Effectively nodulated plants of 3 cultivars of chickpea, classified as early, mid-late and late-maturing, were grown to reproductive maturity in 12 factorial combinations of simulated tropical environments in growth cabinets. Cultivars varied in sensitivity but all responded as quantitative long-day plants and flowered earlier in longer photoperiods. Differences in temperature had important consequences, especially on the duration of the reproductive phase and overall crop longevity; they also induced plants to flower at the same time in different photo-periods. Early flowering plants did not necessarily mature early; others taking twice as long to come into flower had short reproductive periods and came to maturity at the same time. Relations between phenology, morphology and seed yield are described and compared with similar data for field-grown plants. Screening for ‘adaptation to environment’ in chickpeas is discussed.
Factorial combinations of three daylengths (11, 12 and 15 h), warm and cool days (30° and 22° C) and warm and cool nights (18° and 10°C) were imposed on nodulated plants of three chickpea cultivars grown in pots in controlled environment growth cabinets. The treatments had large effects on growth, phenology and seed yield and no single environmental regime was optimal for all successive stages of development. Root growth and nodulation were extremely responsive to the environment experienced by the shoot. Conclusions are drawn on the potential contribution of these data to the development of empirical screening techniques suitable for large, segregating populations in field programmes devoted to the production of chickpea cultivars better adapted to their intended environments.
Plants of two genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), classified as early or late-maturing in the field, and relying either on dinitrogen fixation by nodules or on nitrate-N, were grown in various simulated tropical environments in growth cabinets. Plants were transferred between cabinets at various times so that they experienced either warm (30°C) or hot (35°C) days (both in combination with a typical night temperature of 10°C) for different durations of reproductive growth, after growing in average (30°C day - 10°C night) or warmer than average (30° - 18°C) temperatures for the first 28 days from sowing and then average temperatures until transferred into the hot regime. Diurnal vapour pressure deficits were adjusted so that plants experienced a constant atmospheric relative himidity (70%) in all thermal regimes. The greater the proportion of the reproductive period spent in hot days the smaller the seed yields produced; plants transferred at 50% flowering were almost barren. The implications of these data for breeding chickpeas well adapted to hot environments are discussed.
Two classes of elliptical galaxies are now recognised (Kormendy & Bender 1996). Luminous ellipticals rotate slowly (Davies et al. 1983and tend to have boxy isophotes. Ellipticals fainter than L∗ exhibit an increasing tendency to be rotationally supported and to possess a stellar disk component. This dichotomy led Bender, Burstein & Faber (1992) to suggest that the physical variable that controls the ultimate nature of a forming galaxy is the degree of gaseous dissipation that occurs in the final merger it experiences. Low luminosity systems experience more dissipative mergers which generate high rotation, disky end products. As bigger galaxies are formed, the mergers become increasingly stellar, producing the classical slow rotating ellipticals. They termed this the gas/stellar continuum. This global dichotomy is also reflected in the bimodality of core morphologies of the heterogeneous sample of local ellipticals observed with HST. The low luminosity disky galaxies have ‘hard’ cores with a steep slope in the luminosity profile at small radii, whereas the luminous galaxies have ‘soft’ cores with flat profiles at small radii (e.g. Faber et al. 1997).
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