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Diagnosis and classification for mental disorder are in flux. This transition has downstream consequences on the nature of clinical assessment in research and treatment settings. We begin this chapter by describing the prevailing categorical rubrics, which are the predominant guide to clinical assessment worldwide. These systems, despite their popularity, suffer from serious defects, which have prompted the development of alternate frameworks for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology. We focus the remainder of the chapter on two prominent contenders to supplement, and perhaps eventually supplant, traditional categorical models. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology is an empirically derived system of the phenotypic dimensions of psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria represent a biologically oriented approach to understanding risk processes implicated in mental disorder. We describe the promise and challenges facing these two emerging systems, and we speculate about how they will shape the future of clinical assessment.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
We present the characteristics of a high temperature CMOS integrated circuit process based on 4H silicon carbide designed to operate at temperatures beyond 300°C. N-channel and P-channel transistor characteristics at room and elevated temperatures are presented. Both channel types show the expected low values of field effect mobility well known in SiC MOSFETS. However the performance achieved is easily capable of exploitation in CMOS digital logic circuits and certain analogue circuits, over a wide temperature range.
Data is also presented for the performance of digital logic demonstrator circuits, in particular a 4 to 1 analogue multiplexer and a configurable timer operating over a wide temperature range. Devices are packaged in high temperature ceramic dual in line (DIL) packages, which are capable of greater than 300°C operation. A high temperature “micro-oven” system has been designed and built to enable testing and stressing of units assembled in these package types. This system heats a group of devices together to temperatures of up to 300°C while keeping the electrical connections at much lower temperatures. In addition, long term reliability data for some structures such as contact chains to n-type and p-type SiC and simple logic circuits is summarized.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
When BN is synthesized via polymeric precursors and applied to ceramic substrates, tough adherent coatings of hexagonal-BN (h-BN) are obtained after annealing at 1200°C in N2. The study of these coatings is facilitated by using nonporous oxide powders containing single crystal particles of submicron size (e.g. cubes of MgO) as model ceramic substrates. These oxide powders permit high resolution TEM examination of the BN coatings with no further sample preparation. In this study, samples of BN/MgO cubes containing 50 wt% BN were heated in air at elevated temperatures for 16 hours to study the oxidation resistance of BN coatings. The BN coating was found to be stable at 600°C, but the 700°C-treated sample showed evidence for partial amorphization of the coating and reaction with MgO. A significant fraction of the MgO in the 800°C-treated sample had transformed to Mg2B2O5. The reaction of MgO with the BN coating under oxidizing ambients leads to loss of the cubic morphology in the precursor powder.
Silica sols were produced with various catalysts (NaOH and HF). Dynamic small strain rheometry was used to probe the formation of the silica network from the sol state through the gelation point into the region of high modulus. These results were related to the dried xerogel properties of surface area and porosity.
Optical absorption measurements have been carried out on compressive InGaAs/FInP strained layers. It is shown that thoptical absorption analysis is a powerful technique in order to study the inhomogeneities of strained layers. The energetic dispersion of the heavy hole relative to the light hole subband σHH/σLH is related with the presence of the coarse structure seen in Transmission Electron Microscopy observations.
The objective of this Small-Bus i ness Innovative Research (SBIR) effort is to expand on work reported previously  and further develop a new class of microcomposite materials which combine the outstanding properties of ordered polymers and the excellent compressive strength of glass. In Phase I we demonstrated adverse property changes in poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) ordered polymer films by infiltrating sol-gel glass reagents. During Phase II we have addressed the following areas: sol-gel infiltration process; effect of sol-gel glass composition; tensile strength characterization, microcomposite UV resistance, lamination process, compressive strength determination. The following subsections present the work conducted to date.
A study by Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) of strained InGaAs/InAlAs systems on InP substrates is presented. The influence of the lattice mismatch, epilayer thickness and modulation of the lattice parameter on the morphology of the system is analyzed. A discussion of the strain relaxation mechanisms occurring for each growth morphology is also presented.