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To compare the validity of a modified Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), a picture-sort administration of the FFQ (PSFFQ) and a meal pattern-based questionnaire (MPQ) in a multi-ethnic population of low socio-economic status (SES).
Participants completed six 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR) over six months; the FFQ, PSFFQ and MPQ were completed in random order in the subsequent month. Instruments were interviewer-administered. The PSFFQ and MPQ were developed in formative research concerning difficulties for older adults in responding to standard food-frequency instruments.
Rural North Carolina, USA.
One hundred and twenty-two African American, Native American and white adults aged ≥ 65 years, with approximately one-third in each ethnic group. Inclusion criteria included education ≤ 12 years and income ≤ 150% of national poverty level or Medicaid recipient.
Comparing median intakes from the average of the 24HR with the three diet assessment instruments, the MPQ tended to overestimate intakes compared with the FFQ and PSFFQ. Correlations among nutrients obtained by the 24HR and the other three instruments were generally statistically significant and positive. Across nutrients, the PSFFQ was most highly correlated with the 24HR for women, while the FFQ was most highly correlated with the 24HR for men.
Dietary assessments using 24HR and FFQ were similar to results reported elsewhere, although correlations between 24HR and FFQ were somewhat lower. Interviewer-administered dietary assessments should be used with caution to evaluate dietary intake among older adults with low SES. Gender differences and the lower correlations should be investigated more thoroughly to assist in choosing dietary assessment instruments for this population.
Results of previous studies on diet and gallbladder disease (GBD), defined as having gallstones or having had surgery for gallstones, have been inconsistent. This research examined patterns of food intake in Mexican Americans and their associations with GBD.
The study population included 4641 Mexican Americans aged 20–74 years who participated in the 1988–94 third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). GBD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Food intake patterns were identified by principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire responses. Component scores representing the level of intake of each pattern were categorized into quartiles, and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were estimated relative to the lowest quartile along with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
There were four distinct patterns in women (vegetable, high calorie, traditional, fruit) and three in men (vegetable, high calorie, traditional). After age adjustment, none were associated with GBD in women. However, men in the third (POR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.21–0.85) and fourth (POR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28–1.01) quartiles of the traditional intake pattern were half as likely to have GBD as those in the lowest quartile.
These findings add to a growing literature suggesting dietary intake patterns can provide potentially useful and relevant information on diet–disease associations. Nevertheless, methods to do so require further development and validation.
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