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Flodoard of Rheims (893/4–966) is one of the tenth century's most intriguing but neglected historians. His works are essential sources for the emergence of the West Frankish and Ottonian kingdoms in the tumultuous decades following the collapse of the Carolingian empire in 888. Yet although Flodoard is a crucial narrative voice from this period, his works have seldom been considered in the context of the evolving circumstances of his turbulent career or his literary aims. This important new study is the first to analyse and synthesise Flodoard's entire output, suggesting that his writings about Rheims, contemporary politics and the Christian past have until now been taken at face value without regard for his own intentions or priorities, and therefore have been misunderstood. Edward Roberts' re-evaluation of the relationship between political participation, historical understanding and authorial individuality casts important new light on the political and cultural history of tenth-century Europe.
This chapter examines the Shareholder Primacy Norm (SPN) as a widely acknowledged impediment to corporate social responsibility (CSR), including how this relates to Stakeholder Theory. We start by explaining the SPN and then review its status under US and UK law and show that it is not a legal requirement, at least under the guise of shareholder value maximization. This is in contrast to the common assertion that managers are legally constrained from addressing CSR issues if doing so would be inconsistent with the economic interests of shareholders. Nonetheless, while the SPN might be muted as a legal norm, we show that it is certainly evident as a powerful social norm among managers and in business schools— reflective, in part, of the sole voting rights of shareholders on corporate boards and of the dominance of Shareholder Theory. We argue that this view of CSR is misguided, not least when associated with claims of a purported legally enforceable requirement to maximize shareholder value. We propose two ways by which the influence of the SPN among managers might be attenuated: extending voting rights to non-shareholder stakeholders or extending fiduciary duties of executives to non-shareholder stakeholders.
In the decades since R. Edward Freeman first introduced stakeholder theory, which views firms in terms of their relationships to a broad set of partners, the stakeholder approach has drawn increasing attention as a model for ethical business. Edited by Freeman, alongside other leading scholars in stakeholder theory and strategic management, this handbook provides a comprehensive foundation for study in the field, with eighteen chapters covering some of the most important topics in stakeholder theory written by respected and highly cited experts. The chapters contain an overview of the topic, an examination of the most important research on the topic to date, an evaluation of that research, and suggestions for future directions. Given the pace of new scholarship in the field, this handbook will provide an essential reference on both foundational topics as well as new applications of stakeholder theory to entrepreneurship, sustainable business, corporate responsibility, and beyond.
This research explores media reporting of Indigenous students’ Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results in two national and 11 metropolitan Australian newspapers from 2001 to 2015. Of almost 300 articles on PISA, only 10 focused on reporting of Indigenous PISA results. While general or non-Indigenous PISA results featured in media reports, especially at the time of the publication of PISA results, there was overwhelming neglect of Indigenous results and the performance gap. A thematic analysis of articles showed mainstream PISA reporting had critical commentary which is not found in the Indigenous PISA articles. The three themes identified include: a lack of teacher quality in remote and rural schools; the debate on Gonski funding recommendations and the PISA achievement gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. This study concluded the overwhelming neglect is linked to media bias, which continues to drive mainstream media coverage of Indigenous Australians.
The increased use of insecticide seed treatments in rice has raised many questions about the potential benefits of these products. In 2014 and 2015, a field experiment was conducted near Stuttgart and Lonoke, AR, to evaluate whether an insecticide seed treatment could possibly lessen injury from acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice. Two IR cultivars were tested (a hybrid, ‘CLXL745’, and an inbred, ‘CL152’), with and without an insecticide seed treatment (thiamethoxam). Four different herbicide combinations were evaluated: a nontreated control, two applications of bispyribac-sodium (hereafter bispyribac), two applications of imazethapyr, and two applications of imazethapyr plus bispyribac. The first herbicide application was to two- to three-leaf rice, and the second immediately prior to flooding (one- to two-tiller). At both 2 and 4 wk after final treatment (WAFT), the sequential applications of imazethapyr or bispyribac plus imazethapyr were more injurious to CLXL745 than CL152. This increased injury led to decreased groundcover 3 WAFT. Rice treated with thiamethoxam was less injured than nontreated rice and had improved groundcover and greater canopy heights. Even with up to 32% injury, the rice plants recovered by the end of the growing season, and yields within a cultivar were similar with and without a thiamethoxam seed treatment across all herbicide treatments. Based on these results, thiamethoxam can partially protect rice from injury caused by ALS-inhibiting herbicides as well as increase groundcover and canopy height; that is, the injury to rice never negatively affected yield.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More than half a million adult patients nationally undergo cardiac surgery each year. Reintubation following cardiac surgery is common and associated with higher short- and long-term mortality, increased cost, and longer lengths of stay. The reintubation incidence is estimated at 5-10%. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are increasing in age and comorbidity burden, and receive increasingly complex cardiac surgical procedures, complicating decision making around when to extubate postoperative patients. Compounding this complexity are financial pressures to maintain high throughput and maximize ICU bed availability. Providers are often compelled to extubate high-risk patients earlier, despite the potential for an increased risk of reintubation. Understanding the risk factors for reintubation after cardiac surgery and identifying effective interventions to reduce these reintubations is of critical importance to optimize patient outcomes. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) provides up to 60 liters per minute of 100% oxygen, dead space washout, and humidification to improve secretion clearance, and has shown some benefits in improving hypoxia and reducing reintubation in select populations. However, its benefit in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures is not known and therefore clinicians may still be reluctant to extubate these patients early and introduce HFNC, despite the known risks of prolonged intubation. To address this important issue, we aim to develop and validate a model to predict postoperative reintubation after cardiac surgery using data readily available from the electronic health record (EHR) and use this data to complete a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of post-extubation HFNC to prevent reintubation in cardiac surgery patients identified as at high risk for reintubation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Based on retrospective data demonstrating a 4.7% reintubation incidence within 48 hours in our CVICU, we estimate that there will be 340 reintubations available for analysis of the risk factors for reintubation to develop our predictive model from November 2, 2017 (our EHR go-live). We require 15 events per predictive variable to avoid overfitting the model, giving us at least 22 variables for analysis and inclusion in the model. Model validation and calibration will be performed using a bootstrapped validation cohort. Next, we will prospectively study 120 patients with a greater than 10% predicted risk of reintubation (double the baseline risk of the overall population) and randomly assign them to either HFNC or usual care, to test the hypothesis that HFNC decreases the rate of reintubation in high-risk patients. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In addition to developing a predictive model, refining it, and validating its ability to predict the primary outcome of reintubation within 48 hours, I will further assess whether HFNC reduces total duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, and ICU length of stay in this high-risk population. I will use these data to establish the feasibility of EHR-integrated predictive modeling and randomization, as well as to guide a future multicenter clinical trial that will pragmatically leverage the EHR for patient selection, enrollment, randomization, and data collection. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Assuming HFNC decreases reintubation rates by 50%, at a 1:1 ratio of cases to controls, we will require 435 patients in each group (970 total), to have an 80% power and alpha of 0.05 to detect a difference. As this will require a multicenter study, we will instead focus on using data from this pilot study to: 1) refine our sample size estimates. 2) demonstrate the feasibility of our novel EHR-integrated pragmatic trial design. 3) identify and screen collaborators at other institutions, including obtaining important regulatory and legal approval. 4) establish a data safety monitoring board for the trial. 5) refine the data collection infrastructure, leveraging commercially available resources in one of the largest enterprise EHR systems (Epic) and associated resource-sharing products, such as Epic’s App Orchard.
Several grass and broadleaf weed species around the world have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance at alarmingly increasing rates. Research on the biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms of multiple-resistant weed populations indicate a prevalence of herbicide metabolism catalyzed by enzyme systems such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases and, to a lesser extent, by glucosyl transferases. A symposium was conducted to gain an understanding of the current state of research on metabolic resistance mechanisms in weed species that pose major management problems around the world. These topics, as well as future directions of investigations that were identified in the symposium, are summarized herein. In addition, the latest information on selected topics such as the role of safeners in inducing crop tolerance to herbicides, selectivity to clomazone, glyphosate metabolism in crops and weeds, and bioactivation of natural molecules is reviewed.
The extent and nature of lawyers' participation in civic life probably has important effects on the character of the community's activity and its outcomes. Where and how lawyers participate in voluntary associations may influence the ability of those organizations to function within the larger structure of American institutions.
This paper compares findings from two surveys of Chicago lawyers, the first conducted in 1975 and the second in 1994-95. Contrary to some expectations, the available evidence does not suggest that community activities of lawyers decreased. Moreover, lawyers' energies in 1995 appear to have been devoted more often to socially concerned organizations, those with a reformist agenda, than had been the case in 1975. The types of organizations with the greatest increase in activity were religious and civic associations. A smaller percentage of the respondents held leadership positions in 1995 than in 1975, but, because of a doubling in the number of lawyers, the best estimate is that the bar's absolute level of contribution to community leadership did not change greatly.
In both 1975 and 1995, a hierarchy of social prestige appears to have influenced the pattern of lawyers' community activities. Lawyers who had higher incomes, were middle-aged, were Protestants, and who had attended elite law schools were more likely to be active or leaders in most kinds of organizations. In ethnic and fraternal organizations, however, the elites of the profession had relatively low rates of participation, while government lawyers, solo practitioners, and graduates of less prestigious law schools predominated. Status hierarchies within the broader community—as well as social differences in taste, preference, or “culture”—clearly penetrate the bar.