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SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Many factors such as environment, herbicide rate, growth stage at application and days between sequential applications can influence response of a crop to herbicides. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new broad-spectrum, POST herbicide commercialized in U.S. rice in 2018. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) near Colt, AR, and the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC), near Stuttgart, AR, evaluating crop injury and yield response of three rice cultivars to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted at the Altheimer Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR, evaluating cultivar responses when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 or 60 g ae ha -1 to rice exposed to different temperature regimes or at various growth stages. Three rice cultivars were used in all experiments: long-grain variety ‘CL111’, medium-grain variety ‘CL272’, and long-grain hybrid cultivar ‘CLXL745’. CL111 exhibited sufficient tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl with only 10% visible injury and no effect on yield. CL272 showed 15% injury 3 wks after the second application in the field experiment when applications were made 14 d apart. Additionally, 12% injury was observed in the greenhouse when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ae ha -1, averaged over growth stages at application. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl did not reduce the yield of CL272 in the field, indicating CL272 can recover from florpyrauxifen-benzyl injury. As much as 64% injury was observed for CLXL745 at 3 weeks after application (WAA) when sequential herbicide applications were made 4 d apart. High levels of injury occurred in the growth chamber and greenhouse studies for this cultivar as well. Sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl reduced yields of CLXL745 in nearly all treatments. Data from these experiments suggest CL272 and CLXL745 are sensitive to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Growers must follow the prescribed guidelines for using florpyrauxifen-benzyl in these cultivars and others like it.
A non-GMO trait called Inzen™ was recently commercialized in grain sorghum to combat weedy grasses, allowing the use of nicosulfuron POST in the crop. Inzen™ grain sorghum carries a double mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene Val560Ile and Trp574Leu, which potentially results in cross-resistance to a wide assortment of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. To evaluate the scope of cross-resistance to Weed Science Society of America Group 2 herbicides in addition to nicosulfuron, tests were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, AR, the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, AR, and in 2016 at the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, AR. The tests included ALS-inhibiting herbicides from all five families: sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinylthiobenzoics, triazolinones, and triazolopyrimidines. Treatments were made PRE or POST to grain sorghum at a 1× rate for crops in which each herbicide is labeled. Grain sorghum planted in the PRE trial were Inzen™ and a conventional cultivar. Visible estimates of injury and sorghum heights were recorded at 2 and 4 wk after herbicide application, and yield data were collected at crop maturity. In the PRE trial, no visible injury, sorghum height reduction, or yield loss were observed in plots containing the Inzen™ cultivar. Applications made POST to the Inzen™ grain sorghum caused visible injury, sorghum height reduction, and yield loss of 20%, 13%, and 35%, respectively, only in plots where bispyribac-Na was applied. There was no impact on the crop from other POST-applied ALS-inhibiting herbicides. These results demonstrate that the Inzen™ trait confers cross-resistance to most ALS-inhibiting herbicides and could offer promising new alternatives for weed control and protection from carryover of residual ALS-inhibiting herbicides in grain sorghum.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We modeled risk of reintubation within 48 hours of cardiac surgery using variables available in the electronic health record (EHR). This model will guide recruitment for a prospective, pragmatic clinical trial entirely embedded within the EHR among those at high risk of reintubation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: All adult patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit following cardiac surgery involving thoracotomy or sternotomy were eligible for inclusion. Data were obtained from operational and analytical databases integrated into the Epic EHR, as well as institutional and departmental-derived data warehouses, using structured query language. Variables were screened for inclusion in the model based on clinical relevance, availability in the EHR as structured data, and likelihood of timely documentation during routine clinical care, in the hopes of obtaining a maximally-pragmatic model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 2325 patients met inclusion criteria between November 2, 2017 and November 2, 2019. Of these patients, 68.4% were male. Median age was 63.0. The primary outcome of reintubation occurred in 112/2325 (4.8%) of patients within 48 hours and 177/2325 (7.6%) at any point in the subsequent hospital encounter. Univariate screening and iterative model development revealed numerous strong candidate predictors (ANOVA plot, figure 1), resulting in a model with acceptable calibration (calibration plot, figure 2), c = 0.666. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Reintubation is common after cardiac surgery. Risk factors are available in the EHR. We are integrating this model into the EHR to support real-time risk estimation and to recruit and randomize high-risk patients into a clinical trial comparing post-extubation high flow nasal cannula with usual care. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: REF has received grant funding and consulting fees from Medtronic for research on inpatient monitoring.
Field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Arkansas to evaluate the injury caused by herbicides on soybean canopy formation and yield. Fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron alone and in combination with glufosinate were applied to glufosinate-resistant soybean at the V2 growth stage. Soybean injury resulting from these labeled herbicide treatments ranged from 9% to 25% at 2 wk after application. This level of injury resulted in a 4-, 5-, 6-, and 6-d delay in soybean reaching 80% groundcover following fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron, respectively. There was a 2-d delay in soybean reaching a canopy volume of 15,000 cm3 following each of the four herbicide treatments. The addition of glufosinate to the herbicide applications resulted in longer delays in canopy formation with every herbicide treatment except glufosinate + fomesafen. Fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron, each applied with glufosinate, delayed soybean from reaching 80% groundcover by 2, 7, 8, and 9 d, respectively, and delayed the number of days for soybean to reach a canopy volume of 15,000 cm3 by 2, 3, 2, and 2 d, respectively. No yield loss occurred with any herbicide application. A delay in percent groundcover in soybean allows sunlight to reach the soil surface for longer periods throughout the growing season, possibly promoting late-season weed germination and the need for an additional POST herbicide application.
One major challenge in the study of late-Quaternary extinctions (LQEs) is providing better estimates of past megafauna abundance. To show how megaherbivore population size varied before and after the last extinctions in interior Alaska, we use both a database of radiocarbon-dated bone remains (spanning 25–0 ka) and spores of the obligate dung fungus, Sporormiella, recovered from radiocarbon-dated lake-sediment cores (spanning 17–0 ka). Bone fossils show that the last stage of LQEs in the region occurred at about 13 ka ago, but the number of megaherbivore bones remains high into the Holocene. Sporormiella abundance also remains high into the Holocene and does not decrease with major vegetation changes recorded by arboreal pollen percentages. At two sites, the interpretation of Sporormiella was enhanced by additional dung fungal spore types (e.g., Sordaria). In contrast to many sites where the last stage of LQEs is marked by a sharp decline in Sporormiella abundance, in interior Alaska our results indicate the continuance of megaherbivore abundance, albeit with a major taxonomic turnover (including Mammuthus and Equus extinction) from predominantly grazing to browsing dietary guilds. This new and robust evidence implies that regional LQEs were not systematically associated with crashes of overall megaherbivore abundance.
Palmer amaranth is one of the most troublesome weeds of soybean in the United States. To effectively control this weed it is necessary to optimize timing of PRE residual herbicides to mitigate Palmer amaranth emergence. Field studies were conducted in 5 site-years to assess the effect of application timing 12 to 16 d prior to planting (preplant) and at planting (PRE) on soybean injury and longevity of Palmer amaranth control using five residual herbicide treatments. A reduction in longevity of Palmer amaranth control was observed when S-metolachlor + metribuzin and flumioxazin + chlorimuron-ethyl were applied preplant vs. PRE in 2 of the 5 site years. Sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone + cloransulam-methyl, and saflufenacil + dimethenamid-P + pyroxasulfone + metribuzin did not reduce longevity of Palmer amaranth control when applied preplant vs. PRE in all 5 site-years. Visible estimates of soybean injury were lower at 21 d after planting when herbicides were applied 12 to 16 d preplant vs. PRE. These findings suggest that preplant applications can be used to reduce the potential for crop injury and may not result in reduced longevity of control when herbicides with a prolonged residual activity are used. Preplant herbicides increase the likelihood of the residuals being activated prior to subsequent weed emergence as opposed to PRE herbicides applied at soybean planting.
Atrazine offers growers a reliable option to control a broad spectrum of weeds in grain sorghum production systems when applied PRE or POST. However, because of the extensive use of atrazine in grain sorghum and corn, it has been found in groundwater in the United States. Given this issue, field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Fayetteville and Marianna, Arkansas, to explore the tolerance of grain sorghum to applications of assorted photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides in combination with S-metolachlor (PRE and POST) or mesotrione (POST only) as atrazine replacements. All experiments were designed as a factorial, randomized complete block; the two factors were (1) PSII herbicide and (2) the herbicide added to create the mixture. The PSII herbicides were prometryn, ametryn, simazine, fluometuron, metribuzin, linuron, diuron, atrazine, and propazine. The second factor consisted of either no additional herbicide, S-metolachlor, or mesotrione; however, mesotrione was excluded in the PRE experiments. Crop injury estimates, height, and yield data were collected or calculated in both studies. In the PRE study, injury was less than 10% for all treatments except those containing simazine, which caused 11% injury 28 d after application (DAA). Averaged over PSII herbicide, S-metolachlor–containing treatments caused 7% injury at 14 and 28 DAA. Grain sorghum in atrazine-containing treatments yielded 97% of the nontreated. Grain sorghum receiving other herbicide treatments had significant yield loss due to crop injury, compared with atrazine-containing treatments. In the POST study, ametryn- and prometryn-containing treatments were more injurious than all other treatments 14 DAA. Grain sorghum yield in all POST treatments was comparable to atrazine, except prometryn plus mesotrione, which was 65% of the nontreated. More herbicides should be evaluated to find a comparable fit to atrazine when applied PRE in grain sorghum. However, when applied POST, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, metribuzin, propazine, and simazine have some potential to replace atrazine in terms of crop tolerance and should be further tested as part of a weed control program across a greater range of environments.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
We propose the nasal administration of calcium-enriched physiological salts as a new hygienic intervention with possible therapeutic application as a response to the rapid and tenacious spread of COVID-19. We test the effectiveness of these salts against viral and bacterial pathogens in animals and humans. We find that aerosol administration of these salts to the airways diminishes the exhalation of the small particles that face masks fail to filter and, in the case of an influenza swine model, completely block airborne transmission of disease. In a study of 10 human volunteers (5 less than 65 years and 5 older than 65 years), we show that delivery of a nasal saline comprising calcium and sodium salts quickly (within 15 min) and durably (up to at least 6 h) diminishes exhaled particles from the human airways. Being predominantly smaller than 1 μm, these particles are below the size effectively filtered by conventional masks. The suppression of exhaled droplets by the nasal delivery of calcium-rich saline with aerosol droplet size of around 10 μm suggests the upper airways as a primary source of bioaerosol generation. The suppression effect is especially pronounced (99%) among those who exhale large numbers of particles. In our study, we found this high-particle exhalation group to correlate with advanced age. We argue for a new hygienic practice of nasal cleansing by a calcium-rich saline aerosol, to complement the washing of hands with ordinary soap, use of a face mask, and social distancing.
As English becomes ever more entrenched as an additional language in mainland Europe, research suggests it is no longer used purely instrumentally, for the purposes of international communication, but is becoming an integral part of the sociocultural identity of many continental Europeans (e.g. Berns, De Bot and Hasebrink 2007; Berns 1995, 2005; Edwards 2016; Leppänen et al. 2011; Preisler 1999; Proshina 2005). An increasing number of studies have focused on mainland Europeans’ attitudes to different non-native (NNS) varieties of English. Attitudes to the notion of a pan-continental ‘Euro-English’ have been found to be largely negative (Van den Doel and Quené 2013; Forche 2012; Gnutzmann, Jakisch and Rabe 2015; Groom 2012; Mollin 2006; Murray 2004; Sing 2004). However, there are indications that more localised (regional or national) varieties of English may be viewed as more acceptable.
Weed control in corn traditionally has relied on atrazine as a foundational tool to control problematic weeds. However, the recent discovery of atrazine in aquifers and other water sources increases the likelihood of more strict restrictions on its use. Field-based research trials to find atrazine alternatives were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Fayetteville, AR, by testing the tolerance of corn to PRE and POST applications of different photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors alone or in combination with mesotrione or S-metolachlor. All experiments were designed as a two-factor factorial, randomized complete block, with the two factors being (1) PSII-inhibiting herbicide and (2) the herbicide added to create the mixture. The PSII-inhibiting herbicides were prometryn, ametryn, simazine, fluometuron, metribuzin, linuron, diuron, atrazine, and propazine. The second factor consisted of either no additional herbicide, S-metolachlor, or mesotrione. Treatments were applied immediately after planting in the PRE experiments and to 30-cm–tall corn for the POST experiments. For the PRE study, low levels of injury (<15%) were observed at 14 and 28 d after application and corn height was negatively affected by the PSII-inhibiting herbicide applied. PRE-applied fluometuron- and ametryn-containing treatments consistently caused injury to corn, often exceeding 5%. Because of low injury levels caused by all treatments, crop density and yield did not differ from that of the nontreated plants. For the POST study, crop injury, relative height, and relative yield were affected by PSII-inhibiting herbicide and the herbicide added. Ametryn-, diuron-, linuron-, propazine-, and prometryn-containing treatments caused at least 25% injury to corn in at least 1 site-year. All PSII-inhibiting herbicides, except metribuzin and simazine when applied alone, caused yield loss in corn when compared with atrazine alone. Diuron-, linuron-, metribuzin-, and simazine-containing treatments applied PRE and metribuzin- and simazine-containing treatments applied POST should be investigated further as atrazine replacements.
The Gospel of Peter (GP), often claimed to be theologically unsophisticated, offers a theological reflection upon the saving work of the Lord in his resurrection. GP receives the synoptic tradition, which itself has no narration of the resurrection (but only narrations of ‘appearances’), and fills in this lacuna. The narration of the resurrection is patterned upon GP's narration of the crucifixion, thereby suggesting that the resurrection and the crucifixion are two coordinated salvific events. GP's reception of the synoptic tradition is thus not only apologetic or polemical, but also theological.