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Programmatic learning goals serve as the foundation for an educational institution’s curriculum design and assurance of learning processes. The purpose of our study is to determine the relevance or alignment of undergraduate business school learning goals. We identify the learning goals of US undergraduate business programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-International (AACSB) and determine the extent to which the goals are aligned with (a) evidence-based competencies that are needed for managerial success (including the ‘Great Eight’ and the ‘hyperdimensional taxonomy’) and (b) content areas identified in AACSB’s Eligibility Procedures and Accreditation Standards for Business Accreditation. We found that learning goals conform to AACSB Standards and evidence-based managerial competencies, but goals are most closely aligned with AACSB Standards, followed by the Great Eight, and the hyperdimensional taxonomy, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings with respect to business schools’ assurance of learning processes and provide recommendations for AACSB, business schools, the broader academy, and future research.
To describe the investigation and management of an outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii and to determine risk factors for acquisition of the organism.
A 14-bed regional burn unit in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Case-control study with multivariate analysis of potential risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Surveillance cultures were obtained from the hospital environment, from noninfected patients, and from healthcare providers.
A total of 31 (13%) of 247 patients with acute burn injuries acquired multiresistant A. baumannii between December 1998 and March 2000; 18 (58%) of the patients were infected. The organism was recovered from the hospital environment and the hands of healthcare providers. Significant risk factors for acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii were receipt of blood products (odds ratio [OR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 3.4 to 34.4; P < .001); procedures performed in the hydrotherapy room (OR, 4.1; CI95, 1.3 to 13.1; P = .02); and increased duration of mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.1 per day; CI95, 1.0 to 1.1; P=. 02).
Improved compliance with hand hygiene, strict patient isolation, meticulous environmental cleaning, and temporary closure of the unit to new admissions.
Acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii was likely multifactorial, related to environmental contamination and contact with transiently colonized healthcare providers. Control measures addressing these potential sources of multiresistant A. baumannii were successful in terminating the outbreak. Ongoing surveillance and continued attention to hand hygiene and adequate environmental cleaning are essential to prevent recurrent outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in burn units.
Pual E. Kolenbrander, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA,
Roxanna N. Andersen, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA,
Karen M. Kazmerzak, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA,
Robert J. Palmer, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Certain molecules on the surfaces of human oral bacteria can be recognized by cognate surface components of genetically distinct cells, which bind to form networks of cell–cell interactions. When these interactions occur in suspension, they are called coaggregations (Kolenbrander, 1988). When the interaction occurs between suspended or planktonic cells and already adherent cells, it is called coadhesion (Bos et al., 1994). Coadhesion may involve the accretion of an already formed coaggregate onto a biofilm, which is an assemblage of living cells on a substratum, or onto a virgin surface.
Coaggregation among human oral bacteria was first described 30 years ago (Gibbons & Nygaard, 1970). Coaggregation is measured by several methods, including visual inspection of clumps or coaggregates after mixing dense suspensions of two cell types (Gibbons & Nygaard, 1970), turbidometric measurement of supernatant after slowspeed centrifugation to pellet the coaggregates (McIntire et al., 1978), filtration through specific pore size to separate single cells from coaggregates (Lancy et al., 1980), distribution of radiolabelled cells of one cell type in coaggregates and supernatant after slow-speed centrifugation (Kolenbrander & Andersen, 1986) and binding of a radiolabelled cell type to partner cells immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane (Lamont & Rosan, 1990). Coaggregations may be unimodal or bimodal (Kolenbrander, 1997). Unimodal coaggregations involve protease-sensitive molecules on the cell surface of one of the partners recognizing their cognate receptors (protease-insensitive) on the other partner's cell surface. Bimodal coaggregations involve more than one of the unimodal mechanisms. For example, one partner expresses both an adhesin and a non-cognate receptor. Its partner expresses the respective cognates for the adhesin and receptor.
Total en bloc removal is the ideal surgical treatment for glomus jugulare tumours. Efforts to accomplish this have been made periodically since shortly after this tumour was first identified in the early 1940s. A method of removal using a combined approach through the neck and temporal bone is described here. This method is preceded by pre-operative irradiation therapy and on occasion by embolization. The early results obtained using this method in 19 patients are reported.