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Traditionally, leadership has not been viewed as critical to creativity and innovation. In real-world settings, however, the need for multiple people and multiple different groups, in turning creative ideas into viable products, places a premium on leadership. In fact, prior work indicates that leadership is a powerful influence on the success of creative efforts. In the present effort, a tripartite model of the key actions required of those asked to lead creative efforts is presented. This model holds that leaders must (1) plan and direct creative efforts, (2) sell, or champion, creative efforts, and (3) manage interactions among team members working on creative efforts. The implications of these observations for developing people to lead creative efforts are discussed.
This study explored Closing-in behavior (CIB), the tendency in figure copying to draw very close to or on top of the model, in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The files of 154 people diagnosed with MCI were reviewed and CIB was identified in 21% of cases. Two approaches were used to explore CIB. First, we capitalized on the diverse cognitive profiles within MCI, subdividing the overall sample into people with and without memory deficits. The frequency of CIB was significantly higher in multidomain non-amnestic MCI than in multidomain amnestic MCI, suggesting that CIB is not associated with specific memory impairment. Second, we assessed the cognitive correlates of CIB, by selecting patients with MCI who completed a battery of executive, visuo-constructional and memory tasks. Sub-groups of patients with and without CIB showed a similar overall severity of cognitive decline and comparable performance in visuo-constructional and memory tasks, but those with CIB were slightly but significantly more impaired on executive function tasks. The study provides evidence against memory-based accounts of CIB, and supports recent suggestions that executive impairments are the dominant cognitive correlate of this clinical sign. (JINS, 2012, 18, 269–276)
The frequency and characteristics of closing-in behavior (CIB) were examined in 797 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 132 of whom were followed up longitudinally. The frequency of CIB increased with the complexity of the graphic copying task and with the severity of Alzheimer’s disease. Regression analyses suggested that attentional deficits are critical factors for the appearance of CIB, but that visuospatial impairments also play an important role in the emergence of severe forms of CIB. (JINS, 2009, 15, 787–792.)
An attempt was made to follow to completion the pregnancies of 2049 women who had amniocentesis for genetic purposes in a single hospital region in northern England. The object of the study was to establish the extent to which complications of pregnancy and fetal problems are attributable to the procedure. Follow-up was complete in 1750 women. Risks to the mother, other than minor abdominal discomfort following the amniocentesis, were minimal. The increase in complications to the pregnancy and delivery, the occurrence of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, and perinatal death, that can be attributed to the procedure of anmiocentesis fall at the lower end of the range previously reported.
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