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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study aims to understand the potential immunomudualtory effect of APOL1 variants in auto-antigen activated myeloid cells by assessing lysosomal integrity in activated cells expressing APOL1. The primary stimuli were: 1. ssRNA hY3 as a proxy for the Ro immune complex; 2. in an bulk RNA seq model, interferon-response gene, Siglec 1, as a read out of interferon activity. The primary outcomes were: 1. Myeloid cell APOL1 expression both in primary macrophage cultures and ex-vivo patient derived macrophages; 2. Lysosome integrity as measured by fluorescence intensity of lysotracker dye on light microscopy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: All recruited subjects provided written informed consent as per the NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Division of Rheumatology-wide Specimen and Matched Phenotype Linked Examination (SAMPLE) protocol. Subjects were African American; SLE subjects met 4 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE. Healthy donor monocytes representing each genotype in duplicate (reference allele: G0/G0; heterozygote variant: RV/G0; and homozygote variant RV/RV) were cultured with GM-CSF to yield macrophages which were incubated in serum free media or with hY3 ssRNA (TLR 7/8 agonist) to yield inflammatory M1 macrophages. Fold increase of APOL1 in untreated vs hY3 treated macrophages was measured using qPCR. Live cells were then cultured on glass chamber slides with DNA dye, DAPI, and Lysotracker red, a fluorescent dye that stains acidic lysosomes. As a proof of concept, interferon response gene, Signlec1, and APOL1 transcriptional activity in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were measured and correlated in 17 SLE patients by RNA seq. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Regardless of genotype, hY3 increased APOL1 expression by 29 (+/−18.4) fold (P = 0.007 vs no treatment). Genotyping of the qPCR product showed concordance with the chromosomal DNA with the RV heterozygotes expressing both alleles. To examine lysosomal membrane integrity, live hY3-treated macrophages were stained with lysosotracker dye and fluorescence intensity was measured. Compared to reference allele carrying macrophages, each additional variant allele corresponded with a lesser degree of lysosome compartment staining. In SLE PBMCs, we found that APOL1 was highly expressed, and significantly correlated with Siglec1 (F=10.5; P = 0.005) supporting an association between circulating interferons and APOL1 accumulation in monocytes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given that the “cytokine milieu” in SLE elicits APOL1 expression, induces inflammatory cell metabolic rewiring, and stimulates autophagy thereby exposing defects in autophagic flux, this gene-environment interaction may underpin the relationship between chronic inflammation and heightened APOL1 polymorphism-attributed cardiovascular risk. These data support further inquiry into the intersection between chronic autoimmunity and APOL1’s functional role in the vascular microenvironment. The in vitro studies herein extend our prior work by demonstrating a mechanistic link between SLE-associated inflammation, APOL1 risk variant status and CVD via a lysosomal defect which converges on common autophagic and metabolic pathways in mononuclear cells.
Depression is associated with increased mortality, however, little is known about its variation by ethnicity.
We conducted a cohort study of individuals with ICD-10 unipolar depression from secondary mental healthcare, from an ethnically diverse location in southeast London, followed for 8 years (2007–2014) linked to death certificates. Age- and sex- standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), with the population of England and Wales as a standard population were derived. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were derived through multivariable regression procedures.
Data from 20 320 individuals contributing 91 635 person-years at risk with 2366 deaths were used for analyses. SMR for all-cause mortality in depression was 2.55(95% CI 2.45–2.65), with similar trends by ethnicity. Within the cohort with unipolar depression, adjusted HR (aHRs) for all-cause mortality in ethnic minority groups relative to the White British group were 0.62(95% CI 0.53–0.74) (Black Caribbean), 0.53(95% CI 0.39–0.72) (Black African) and 0.69(95% CI 0.52–0.90) (South Asian). Male sex and alcohol/substance misuse were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk [aHR:1.94 (95% CI 1.68–2.24) and aHR:1.18 (95% CI 1.01–1.37) respectively], whereas comorbid anxiety was associated with a decreased risk [aHR: 0.72(95% CI 0.58–0.89)]. Similar associations were noted for natural-cause mortality. Alcohol/substance misuse and male sex were associated with a near-doubling in unnatural-cause mortality risk, whereas Black Caribbean individuals with depression had a reduced unnatural-cause mortality risk, relative to White British people with depression.
Although individuals with depression experience an increased mortality risk, marked heterogeneity exists by ethnicity. Research and practice should focus on addressing tractable causes underlying increased mortality in depression.
Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the general population in the same area.
Records of 18 380 individuals with SMI aged ⩾20 years in southeast London were linked to hospitalisation data. Age- and gender-standardised admission ratios (SARs) were calculated by primary discharge diagnoses in the 10th edition of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes, referencing geographic catchment data.
Commonest discharge diagnosis categories in the SMI cohort were urinary conditions, digestive conditions, unclassified symptoms, neoplasms, and respiratory conditions. SARs were raised for most major categories, except neoplasms for a significantly lower risk. Hospitalisation risks were specifically higher for poisoning and external causes, injury, endocrine/metabolic conditions, haematological, neurological, dermatological, infectious and non-specific (‘Z-code’) causes. The five commonest specific ICD-10 diagnoses at discharge were ‘chronic renal failure’ (N18), a non-specific code (Z04), ‘dental caries’ (K02), ‘other disorders of the urinary system’ (N39), and ‘pain in throat and chest’ (R07), all of which were higher than expected (SARs ranging 1.57–6.66).
A range of reasons for non-psychiatric hospitalisation in SMI is apparent, with self-harm, self-neglect and/or reduced healthcare access, and medically unexplained symptoms as potential underlying explanations.
Pre-Quaternary terrestrial climate variability is less well understood than that during the Quaternary. The continuous eolian Red Clay sequence underlying the well-known Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) provides an opportunity to study pre-Quaternary terrestrial climate variability in East Asia. Here, we present new mineral magnetic records for a recently found Red Clay succession from Shilou area on the eastern CLP, and demonstrate a marked East Asian climate shift across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (MPB). Pedogenic fine-grained magnetite populations, ranging from superparamagnetic (SP)/single domain (SD) up to small pseudo-single domain (PSD) sizes (i.e., from <30 nm up to ~1000 nm), dominate the magnetic properties. Importantly, our mineral magnetic results indicate that both pedogenic formation of SP grains and transformation of SP grains to SD and small PSD grains accelerated across the MPB in the Shilou Red Clay, which are indicative of enhanced pedogenesis. We relate this enhanced pedogenesis to increased soil moisture availability on the CLP, associated with stronger Asian Summer Monsoon precipitation during an overall period of global cooling. Our study thus provides new insights into the Miocene-Pliocene climate transition in East Asia.
While normative data on neuropsychological performance provide baseline metrics for the assessment and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, a lack of comparative normative data in non-Caucasian populations makes it difficult to conduct similar evaluations and studies in individuals from diverse backgrounds. The current paper aims to provide normative data on a range of cognitive measures in a Korean general population sample and investigate various demographic and health variables associated with cognitive performance in this representative population.
The study population was 1,528 stroke and dementia-free individuals who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study (KoGES) (mean age 60.43 ± 7.30, 52.42% female). All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery that included verbal and visual memory, language, attention, and executive function measures. A health examination and a questionnaire-based interview were also administered.
The majority of cognitive test results were associated with age, education, and gender. In general, higher education and younger age was associated with better cognitive performance. Explained variance increased modestly in models that included measures of general health and depressive symptoms.
Normative data of cognitive performance in a community based Korean population are presented. These norms provide reference values in a non-Caucasian middle to older aged sample.
This paper identifies the resource needs of international entrepreneurs and examines the role of government and industry networks as providers of resource opportunities deemed essential by international entrepreneurs for international growth. Unique resource challenges confront international entrepreneurs in their pursuit of international markets. Our qualitative study of Australian entrepreneurs in the health industry reveals that international entrepreneurs emphasise information, knowledge and relational resources as crucial for international market entry. Although government networks provide essential resources at the planning and pre-entry stage of internationalisation, at the postentry stage industry networks offer more relevant resource opportunities. Both networks, however, fall short of expectations in affording knowledge and relational resources that are instrumental in entering international markets.
The cross-plane thermal conductivities of InGaZnO (IGZO) thin films in different morphologies were measured on three occasions within 19 months, using the 3ω method at room temperature 300 K. Amorphous (a-), semi-crystalline (semi-c-) and crystalline (c-) IGZO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for evaluation of film quality and crystallinity. Semi-c-IGZO shows the highest thermal conductivity, even higher than the most ordered crystal-like phase. After being stored in dry low-oxygen environment for months, a drastic decrease of semi-c-IGZO thermal conductivity was observed, while the thermal conductivity slightly reduced in c-IGZO and remained unchanged in a-IGZO. This change in thermal conductivity with storage time can be attributed to film structural relaxation and vacancy diffusion to grain boundaries.
We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80–200 keV electron beams.
The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I–V–VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine. By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine, uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4 particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV. The synthesized Cu3PS4 produces a cathodic photocurrent during photoelectrochemical measurements, demonstrating its application as a light-absorbing material. Our process creates opportunities to explore other solution-based metal-phosphorus systems and their subsequent sulfurization for earth abundant, alternative energy materials.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Approximately 40% of bipolar patients experience rapid cycling, and half of these suffer from ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. These patterns are also common in children. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder is difficult to bring to remission and often requires treatment with four or more classes of psychotropic medications. Lithium, even in combination with anticonvulsants or antidepressants, is often associated with residual episodic depressions. Concerns with adjunctive antidepressant treatment include their low response and remission rates and their tendency to cause switch into mania. Atypical antipsychotics and selected agents within the anticonvulsant class are becoming increasingly important in the treatment of rapid cycling. In the absence of clear treatment guidelines, the use and sequencing of drugs in complex combination treatment remains exploratory, but should be individualized based on careful prospective mood charting by the patient. Use of several drugs below their side-effect thresholds may prevent certain side effects. In children, long-term safety considerations are particularly important in the absence of a strong controlled clinical trials database.