To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Among Veterans, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be associated with obesity and accelerated weight gain. Less is known among the general population. We sought to determine the impact of PTSD on body mass index (BMI) and weight change among individuals with exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster.
We examined individuals from the WTC Health Registry. PTSD symptoms were assessed on multiple surveys (Waves 1–4) using the PTSD Checklist-Specific. Three categories of post-9/11 PTSD were derived: no, intermittent, and persistent. We examined two outcomes: (1) Wave 3 BMI (normal, overweight, and obese) and (2) weight change between Waves 3 and 4. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between PTSD and BMI (N = 34 958) and generalized estimating equations to assess the impact of PTSD on weight change (N = 26 532). Sex- and age-stratified analyses were adjusted for a priori confounders.
At Wave 3, the observed prevalence of obesity was highest among the persistent (39.5%) and intermittent PTSD (36.6%) groups, compared to the no PTSD group (29.3%). In adjusted models, persistent and intermittent PTSD were consistently associated with a higher odds of obesity. Weight gain was similar across all groups, but those with persistent and intermittent PTSD had higher estimated group-specific mean weights across time.
Our findings that those with a history of PTSD post-9/11 were more likely to have obesity is consistent with existing literature. These findings reaffirm the need for an interdisciplinary focus on physical and mental health to improve health outcomes.
In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, this study sought to determine the relationship between Hurricane Sandy-related inhalation exposures and post-Sandy lower respiratory symptoms (LRS).
Participants included 3835 WTC Health Registry enrollees who completed Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. The Sandy-related inhalational exposures examined were: (1) reconstruction exposure; (2) mold or damp environment exposure; and (3) other respiratory irritants exposure. LRS were defined as wheezing, persistent cough, or shortness of breath reported on ≥1 of the 30 days preceding survey completion. Associations between LRS and Sandy exposures, controlling for socio-demographic factors, post-traumatic stress disorder, and previously reported LRS and asthma were examined using multiple logistic regression.
Over one-third of participants (34.4%) reported post-Sandy LRS. Each of the individual exposures was also independently associated with post-Sandy LRS, each having approximately twice the odds of having post-Sandy LRS. We found a dose-response relationship between the number of types of Sandy-related exposures reported and post-Sandy LRS.
This study provides evidence that post-hurricane clean-up and reconstruction exposures can increase the risk for LRS. Public health interventions should emphasize the importance of safe remediation practices and recommend use of personal protective equipment. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:697-702)
Timely evacuation is vital for reducing adverse outcomes during disasters. This study examined factors associated with evacuation and evacuation timing during Hurricane Sandy among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees.
The study sample included 1162 adults who resided in New York City’s evacuation zone A during Hurricane Sandy who completed the Registry’s Hurricane Sandy substudy in 2013. Factors assessed included zone awareness, prior evacuation experience, community cohesion, emergency preparedness, and poor physical health. Prevalence estimates and multiple logistic regression models of evacuation at any time and evacuation before Hurricane Sandy were created.
Among respondents who evacuated for Hurricane Sandy (51%), 24% had evacuated before the storm. In adjusted analyses, those more likely to evacuate knew they resided in an evacuation zone, had evacuated during Hurricane Irene, or reported pre-Sandy community cohesion. Evacuation was less likely among those who reported being prepared for an emergency. For evacuation timing, evacuation before Hurricane Sandy was less likely among those with pets and those who reported 14 or more poor physical health days.
Higher evacuation rates were observed for respondents seemingly more informed and who lived in neighborhoods with greater social capital. Improved disaster messaging that amplifies these factors may increase adherence with evacuation warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:411–419)
In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center disaster, this study sought to determine the subsequent level of preparedness for a new disaster and how preparedness varied with population characteristics that are both disaster-related and non-disaster-related.
The sample included 4496 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed the Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. Participants were considered prepared if they reported possessing at least 7 of 8 standard preparedness items. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between preparedness and demographic and medical factors, 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at Wave 3, 9/11 exposure, and social support.
Over one-third (37.5%) of participants were prepared with 18.8% possessing all 8 items. The item most often missing was an evacuation plan (69.8%). Higher levels of social support were associated with being prepared. High levels of 9/11 exposure were associated with being prepared in both the PTSD and non-PTSD subgroups.
Our findings indicate that prior 9/11 exposure favorably impacted Hurricane Sandy preparedness. Future preparedness messaging should target people with low social support networks. Communications should include information on evacuation zones and where to find information about how to evacuate. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:625–633)
Evacuation of the World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers and surrounding buildings damaged in the September 11, 2001 attacks provides a unique opportunity to study factors that affect emergency evacuation of high rise buildings.
The goal of this study is to understand the extent to which structural and behavioral barriers and limitations of personal mobility affected evacuation by occupants of affected buildings on September 11, 2001.
This analysis included 5,023 civilian, adult enrollees within the World Trade Center Health Registry who evacuated the two World Trade Center towers and over 30 other Lower Manhattan buildings that were damaged or destroyed on September 11, 2001. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict total evacuation time (<30 to ≤60 minutes, >1 hour to <2 hours relative to ≤30 minutes) in relation to number of infrastructure barriers and number of behavioral barriers, adjusted for demographic and other factors.
A higher percentage of evacuees reported encountering at least one behavioral barrier (84.9%) than reported at least one infrastructure barrier (51.9%). This pattern was consistent in all buildings except WTC 1, the first building attacked, where >90% of evacuees reported encountering both types of barriers. Smoke and poor lighting were the most frequently-reported structural barriers. Extreme crowding, lack of communication with officials, and being surrounded by panicked crowds were the most frequently-reported behavioral barriers. Multivariate analyses showed evacuation time to be independently associated with the number of each type of barrier as well as gender (longer times for women), but not with the floor from which evacuation began. After adjustment, personal mobility impairment was not associated with increased evacuation time.
Because most high-rise buildings have unique designs, infrastructure factors tend to be less predictable than behavioral factors, but both need to be considered in developing emergency evacuation plans in order to decrease evacuation time and, consequently, risk of injury and death during an emergency evacuation.
GroegerJL, StellmanSD, KravittA, BrackbillRM. Evacuating Damaged and Destroyed Buildings on 9/11: Behavioral and Structural Barriers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):1-11.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.