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The fast-evolving relationship between the promotion of welfare-enhancing competition and the balanced protection of intellectual property (IP) rights has attracted the attention of policymakers, analysts and scholars. This interest is inevitable in an environment that lays ever greater emphasis on the management of knowledge and innovation and on mechanisms to ensure that the public derives the expected social and economic benefits from this innovation and the spread of knowledge. This book looks at the positive linkage between IP and competition in jurisdictions around the world, surveying developments and policy issues from an international and comparative perspective. It includes analysis of key doctrinal and policy issues by leading academics and practitioners from around the globe and a cutting-edge survey of related developments across both developed and developing economies. It also situates current policy developments at the national level in the context of multilateral developments, at WIPO, WTO and elsewhere.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE).
The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8–40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses.
When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10).
We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.
The aim of this fixed-dose study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED).
Patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses of dasotraline (4 and 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating (BE) days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included week 12 change on the BE CGI-Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Modified for BE (YBOCS-BE).
At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant improvement in number of BE days per week on the dose of 6 mg/d (N = 162) vs placebo (N = 162; −3.47 vs −2.92; P = .0045), but not 4 mg/d (N = 161; −3.21). Improvement vs placebo was observed for dasotraline 6 and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (effect size [ES]: 0.37 and 0.27) and on the YBOCS-BE total score (ES: 0.43 and 0.29). The most common adverse events on dasotraline were insomnia, dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in blood pressure and pulse were minimal.
Treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d (but not 4 mg/d) was associated with significantly greater reduction in BE days per week. Both doses of dasotraline were generally safe and well-tolerated and resulted in global improvement on the BE-CGI-S, as well as improvement in BE related obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors on the YBOCS-BE. These results confirm the findings of a previous flexible dose study.
SEP-363856 is a novel psychotropic agent that has shown broad efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia and depression. Its antipsychotic effects appear to be mediated by agonist activity at both trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and 5-HT1A receptors. Notably, SEP-363856 does not bind to any dopaminergic, serotonergic (except 5-HT1A), glutamatergic, or other neuroreceptors thought to mediate the effects of currently available antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SEP-363856 in acutely symptomatic patients with schizophrenia.
Patients aged 18-40 years meeting DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia (PANSS total score ≥80) were randomized, double-blind, to 4-weeks of flexible-dose SEP-363856 (50 or 75 mg/d) or placebo. Efficacy measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary), PANSS subscale scores, and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score. Change from baseline in primary and secondary measures were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) analysis.
Study treatment groups were similar at baseline: SEP-363856 (N=120; male, 64.2%; mean age, 30.0 years; PANSS total score, 101.4) and placebo (N=125; male, 63.2%; mean age, 30.6 years; PANSS total score, 99.7). Least-squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline to week 4 was significantly greater for SEP-363856 vs. placebo on the PANSS total score (-17.2 vs. -9.7; P=0.001; effect size, 0.45), PANSS positive subscale score (-5.5 vs. -3.9; P=0.019; effect size, 0.32), PANSS negative subscale score (-3.1 vs. -1.6; P=0.008; effect size, 0.37), PANSS general psychopathology subscale score (-9.0 vs. -4.7; P<0.001; effect size, 0.51), and the CGI-Severity score (-1.0 vs. -0.5; P<0.001; effect size, 0.52). Discontinuation rates for SEP-363856 vs. placebo were similar overall (21.7% vs. 20.8%) and due to an adverse event (8.3% vs. 6.4%). Change in weight, lipids, glucose and prolactin was similar in SEP-363856 and placebo groups. Adverse events occurring with an incidence ≥2% on SEP-363856 or placebo (with SEP-363856 incidence higher than placebo) were: somnolence (6.7% vs. 4.8%), agitation (5.0% vs. 4.8%), nausea (5.0% vs. 3.2%), diarrhea (2.5% vs. 0.8%), and dyspepsia (2.5% vs. 0%). The proportion of patients who reported any extrapyramidal symptom was 3.3% on SEP-363856 and 3.2% on placebo.
In this placebo-controlled study, treatment with SEP-363856, a novel psychotropic agent, was associated with statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in schizophrenia symptoms as demonstrated by endpoint change in PANSS total and subscale scores, and CGI-Severity scores. Safety and tolerability findings for SEP-363856 were in general similar to placebo. In particular, SEP-363856 was not associated with extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, or hyperprolactinemia, consistent with its non-D2 mechanism of action.
Supported by funding from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dasotraline is a long-acting dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with a PK profile characterized by slow absorption and a t½ of 47-77 hours, permitting once-daily dosing. In a previous flexible dose study, dasotraline demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). The aim of this confirmatory fixed-dose study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with BED.
Patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with dasotraline (4 mg/d or 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes at Week 12 on the Binge Eating Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating (Y-BOCS-BE), and the proportion of patients with 100% cessation of binge-eating episodes during the final 4 weeks of treatment. Efficacy was assessed using an MMRM analysis (and a logistic regression model for cessation) with a pre-specified sequential testing procedure used to control overall type I error rate.
A total of 486 were in the ITT population (dasotraline 6 mg/d (N=162), 4 mg/d (N=161), or placebo (N=163). At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant reduction in number of binge-eating days per week in the 6 mg/d group vs. placebo (-3.5 vs. -2.9; P=0.0045), but non-significant improvement in the 4 mg/d group vs. placebo (-3.2; P=0.12). Greater improvement was observed vs. placebo for dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (P<0.01 and P<0.03) and the Y-BOC-BE (P<0.001 and P<0.02; all P-values were nominal, not adjusted for multiplicity). The proportion of patients who achieved 4-week cessation of binge-eating episodes was only significant for the dasotraline 6 mg in the completer population (P<0.05; post-hoc analysis) but was not significant for either dose of dasotraline vs. placebo when drop-outs were included in the analysis. The most common adverse events on dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d were combined insomnia (early, middle, late), dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were minimal. Mean baseline to endpoint changes in supine pulse rate on dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d vs. placebo was +6.2 bpm and +4.8 vs. +0.2 bpm.
In this 12-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study, treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d was associated with a significant reduction in frequency of binge-eating days per week; efficacy was not demonstrated for the 4 mg dose. Treatment with both doses of dasotraline resulted in improvement in the Y-BOCS-BE and the BE-CGI-S. Dasotraline was safe and generally well-tolerated at both doses; most common adverse events were insomnia, dry mouth and headache.
Supported by funding from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
In world history early modernity is a contested category. However, it is commonly accepted that the period from about 1500 to 1800 is a distinct period, bookended by two significant periods of violence. The pattern of long-distance travel that was a feature of the fifteenth century ushered in a period of imperial conquest. The lives of millions of people across the globe were fundamentally transformed between 1500 and 1800 by mass violence, a consequence of European colonisation and enslavement. At the end of this time the Atlantic Revolutions violently overthrow the old order. But early modernity is not simply a period of time. In the period from 1500 to 1800 the problem of violence necessitated asking fundamental questions and formulating answers about the most basic forms of human organisation and interactions, such as the problem of civility in society, the nature of political sovereignty and the power of the state, the legitimacy of conquest and subjugation, the possibilities of popular resistance, and the manifestations of ethnic and racial unrest. Violence also provided the raw material for profound meditations on humanity and for examining our relationship to the divine and natural worlds.
Piracy, or violent despoliation at sea, is ancient, yet it took on global dimensions after 1500. This chapter examines piratical violence as an early modern, global, cross-cultural phenomenon motivated by politics and religion as well as profit. Varieties of piracy ranged from random pillage of merchant vessels to state-sanctioned corsairing companies. Forms of violence included murder, kidnapping, enslavement, rape, battery, mutilation, impressment and forced conversion. In some regions, extortion rackets formed wherein the threat of piratical violence was offset by regular payments. Rising seaborne violence prompted consequential reactions, from naval arms races to coastal depopulation. By the eighteenth century powerful states such as Great Britain and Qing dynasty China passed harsh anti-piracy laws and outfitted navies for pirate extermination, which led to the jailing and execution of many suspects, some of them innocent. Sea sovereignty came to be defined as monopolising violence at sea and treating anyone defined as a pirate as subject to harsher laws than those applied to land thieves. By this logic, pirates were ‘enemies of humankind’.
In the highly competitive and conflictual world of early modern China, aggression and violence were a regular part of life. People not only came to blows with other people, but also with ghosts and demons that infested their world with evils and afflictions. The rock fights, cockfights, self-mortifying shamans, sword-wielding exorcists, public floggings and bloody beheadings discussed in this chapter were common spectacles of public violence. China’s educated elites, who associated such acts with vulgar lower-class culture, disparaged popular forms of violence because they were wild, senseless and uncontrollable. For the lower orders, however, violence was purposeful. It gave power to the powerless and prestige to the disreputable. Regular displays were necessary to gain respect and could even ensure social mobility. Violence was essential to masculinity and gave meaning to men’s lives, providing them with ambition and dignity. The shedding of blood also gave meaning to violence. Blood was the vital force of life important in warding off evil spirits, curing illnesses, ensuring fertility and bringing good luck. These acts were part of a well-established, but heterodox, folk tradition whereby violence and bloody rituals were deeply rooted in the everyday life and popular culture of early modern China.