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Optical SETI at Lick Observatory is characterized by its robust approach to initial detections. Our three-detector system has distinguished itself by successful rejection of nearly all false positive signals. We present observational progress, discuss use of data analysis procedures such as FFTs and analysis of double coincidences, and mention plans to upgrade our instrumentation.
Response tests are widely used in ground-water studies to assess the hydraulic properties of sub-surface water-flow systems. The simplicity of such tests also makes them attractive for investigation of subglacial hydraulic conditions. This paper describes a systematic, quantitative approach to the analysis of borehole-response test data. The approach uses the theoretical model of Stone and Clarke (1993), which describes water motion in a coupled borehole—subglacial flow system; this framework provides the basis for an inversion scheme that is focused on quantifying physical properties of the basal-flow system, as it is characterized in the theoretical model. The inversion procedure was applied to response-test data from Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada. Results of the inversions suggest that the subglacial drainage network can be described as a confined layer comprising coarse-sand-to fine-gravel-sized sediments, having a thickness of 0.1 – 0.3 m, and a hydraulic conductivity of about 5 × 10−4ms−1. Based on the water-drainage rates from boreholes, as they connect with the subglacial water-flow system, specific storage of the sediment layer was estimated to be approximately 1 × 10−4m−1. Further consideration of subglacial water-flow conditions suggests that connection drainage test results may tend to underestimate specific storage of the overall glacier substrate.
The surface radiation budget of the polar regions strongly influences ice
growth and melt. Thermodynamic sea-ice models therefore require accurate yet
computationally efficient methods of computing radiative fluxes. In this
paper a new parameterization of the downwelling shortwave radiation flux at
the Arctic surface is developed and compared to a variety of existing
schemes. Parameterized llnxes are compared to in situ measurements using
data for one year at Barrow, Alaska. Our results show that the new
parameterization can estimate the downwelling shortwave flux with mean and
root mean square errors of 1 and 5%, respectively, for clear conditions and
5 and 20% for cloudy conditions. The new parameterization offers a unified
approach to estimating downwelling shortwave fluxes under clear and cloudy
conditions, and is more accurate than existing schemes.
Present and future measurement of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) particularly in the radio and high energy gamma ray range offer the possibility of understanding the density and distribution of the cosmic rays in a galaxy other than our own and the role that they play in galactic dynamic balance. After a study of the consistency of the measurements and interpretation of the synchrotron radiation from our own galaxy, the cosmic ray distribution for the LMC is calculated under the assumption that the cosmic ray nucleon to electron ratio is the same and the relation to the magnetic fields are the same, although the implications of alternatives are discussed. It is seen that the cosmic ray density level appears to be similar to that in our own galaxy, but varying in position in a manner generally consistent with the concept of correlation with the matter on a broad scale.
Forty-six specimens of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus were captured in depths varying between 100 and 500 m outside of the fringing reef near Suva, Fiji Islands. Thirty-eight of the specimens were male. Air weight per individual varied between 347 and 630 g. Sexual dimorphism in size is indicated, since mature shell modifications (approximated septa, blackened aperture) were present in two females weighing about 350 g (soft parts plus shell) and one weighing slightly over 400 g; the smallest male showing mature shell modifications weighed 496 g. All newly captured specimens were heavier than seawater, with mean weight in seawater of 1.87 g determined for twenty-five specimens. Total volumes of cameral liquid ranged between 13.5 and 0 ml. Thirteen of twenty-five sampled specimens showed less than 1.0 ml of cameral liquid from all chambers. Average cameral liquid osmolarity was lower than that observed in sampled populations of N. macromphalus from New Caledonia and N. pompilius from the Philippine Islands. Maximum swimming rates were 0.25 m/sec. N. pompilius exhibits two common color polymorphs.
We examine the degree of consensus in quality ratings of prominent U.S. wine publications. For the purposes of wine consumption and research, are ratings on the ubiquitous 100-point scale reliable measures of quality? The value of expert judgment has been called into question by a number of studies, especially in the context of wine competitions and tasting events. Using data on 853 wines, we find a moderately high level of consensus, measured by the correlation coefficient, between most pairs of publications, similar to the level found by Ashton (2013). Rank and intraclass correlations are similar. Consensus is not found to be related to the blinding policies (or lack thereof) of the critical publications. (JEL Classifications: C93, D46)
Two new demosponges, Megaciella pituitosa and Cladocroce toxifera, are described from the Aleutian Islands, fostering our contention that the region is a hotspot of poriferan biodiversity. Seven of the thirteen species of Megaciella now known worldwide occur in the Sea of Okhotsk or around the Aleutian Islands. Similarly, five of the sixteen species of Cladocroce known worldwide occur in Alaska. Megaciella pituitosa sp. nov. possesses two categories of choanosomal styles and spicules of different sizes that differentiate it from all known congeners. Cladocroce toxifera sp. nov. differs from all known congeners by possessing toxa and an ectosomal tangential arrangement of oxeas.
A new species of Geodia is described from the North Pacific, collected in the summer of 2012 in the western Aleutian Islands. Geodia starki sp. nov. differs from all known species of Geodia by the possession of two categories of sterrasters and exceptionally large megascleres. The new species is compared with congeners of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans.
The present study investigated the relationship between the milk protein content of a rehydration solution and fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. On three occasions, eight healthy males were dehydrated to an identical degree of body mass loss (BML, approximately 1·8 %) by intermittent cycling in the heat, rehydrating with 150 % of their BML over 1 h with either a 60 g/l carbohydrate solution (C), a 40 g/l carbohydrate, 20 g/l milk protein solution (CP20) or a 20 g/l carbohydrate, 40 g/l milk protein solution (CP40). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and for a further 4 h. Subjects produced less urine after ingesting the CP20 or CP40 drink compared with the C drink (P< 0·01), and at the end of the study, more of the CP20 (59 (sd 12) %) and CP40 (64 (sd 6) %) drinks had been retained compared with the C drink (46 (sd 9) %) (P< 0·01). At the end of the study, whole-body net fluid balance was more negative for trial C ( − 470 (sd 154) ml) compared with both trials CP20 ( − 181 (sd 280) ml) and CP40 ( − 107 (sd 126) ml) (P< 0·01). At 2 and 3 h after drink ingestion, urine osmolality was greater for trials CP20 and CP40 compared with trial C (P< 0·05). The present study further demonstrates that after exercise-induced dehydration, a carbohydrate–milk protein solution is better retained than a carbohydrate solution. The results also suggest that high concentrations of milk protein are not more beneficial in terms of fluid retention than low concentrations of milk protein following exercise-induced dehydration.
The genus Histodermella grows to four species with the addition of H. kagigunensis sp. nov. from the North Pacific. The new species is described and compared with all congeners. Histodermella kagigunensis shows affinities to H. ingolfi Lundbeck 1910 as it has the same spicule types but differs clearly in size, habitus and the dimensions of two occurring spicule types. The discovery of H. kagigunensis represents the first record of the genus Histodermella in the North Pacific Ocean.
To identify risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents.
Multicenter, prospective cohort followed over 6 months.
Three Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCFs.
All current and new residents except those with short stay (<2 weeks).
MRSA carriage was assessed by serial nares cultures and classified into 3 groups: persistent (all cultures positive), intermittent (at least 1 but not all cultures positive), and noncarrier (no cultures positive). MRSA acquisition was defined by an initial negative culture followed by more than 2 positive cultures with no subsequent negative cultures. Epidemiologic data were collected to identify risk factors, and MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Among 412 residents at 3 LTCFs, overall MRSA prevalence was 58%, with similar distributions of carriage at all 3 facilities: 20% persistent, 39% intermittent, 41% noncarriers. Of 254 residents with an initial negative swab, 25 (10%) acquired MRSA over the 6 months; rates were similar at all 3 LTCFs, with no clusters evident. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that receipt of systemic antimicrobials during the study was the only significant risk factor for MRSA acquisition (odds ratio, 7.8 [95% confidence interval, 2.1–28.6]; P = .002). MRSA strains from acquisitions were related by PFGE to those from a roommate in 9/25 (36%) cases; 6 of these 9 roommate sources were persistent carriers.
MRSA colonization prevalence was high at 3 separate VA LTCFs. MRSA acquisition was strongly associated with antimicrobial exposure. Roommate sources were often persistent carriers, but transmission from roommates accounted for only approximately one-third of MRSA acquisitions.