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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Deficits in frontal lobe perfusion have been demonstrated in late-life depression; however, studies to date have generally involved small numbers, used neuroimaging rather than bedside testing and have not controlled for important covariates.
We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and frontal lobe perfusion during standing, in a large cohort of community-dwelling older people.
Participants aged ≥50 years underwent continuous measurement of orthostatic blood pressure by finometry, and frontal lobe perfusion by near-infrared spectroscopy. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Real-time frontal lobe cerebral oxygenation was measured by the Portalite System, detecting changes in frontal lobe perfusion and reporting a tissue saturation index score.
Almost 8% (209 out of 2616) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Multilevel models demonstrated a significantly lower tissue saturation index in participants with depressive symptoms at both 60 and 90 s post-stand, with coefficients of −0.43 (95% CI −0.63 to −0.22) and −0.37 (95% CI −0.57 to −0.16), respectively. Controlling for relevant covariates did not significantly attenuate these associations. After addition of systolic blood pressure this association was no longer significant, suggesting lower blood pressure may modify this relationship.
This study demonstrates that lower frontal lobe perfusion, related to lower values of baseline systolic blood pressure, is associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms in a cohort of community-dwelling older people. Given the recognised longitudinal association between lower blood pressure and depression in older people, this may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of incident depression.
Antineuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis, although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined.
To examine all patients admitted for treatment of FEP for antineuronal antibodies and describe clinical presentations and treatment outcomes in those who were antibody positive.
Individuals admitted for FEP to six mental health units in Queensland, Australia, were prospectively tested for serum antineuronal antibodies. Antibody-positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological assessment and therapy.
Of 113 consenting participants, six had antineuronal antibodies (anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies [n = 4], voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies [n = 1] and antibodies against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Five received immunotherapy, which prompted resolution of psychosis in four.
A small subgroup of patients admitted to hospital with FEP have antineuronal antibodies detectable in serum and are responsive to immunotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to optimise recovery.
Contributors to this Special Issue of the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist have considered the kind of infrastructure that should be in place to best support and guide CBT supervisors, providing practical advice and extensive procedural guidance. Here we briefly summarize and discuss in turn the 10 papers within this Special Issue, including suggestions for further enhancements. The first paper, by Milne and Reiser, conceptualized this infrastructure in terms of an ‘SOS’ (supporting our supervisors) framework, from identifying supervision competencies, to training, evaluation and feedback strategies. The next nine papers illustrate this framework with specific technical innovations, educational enhancements and procedural issues, or through comprehensive quality improvement systems, all designed to support supervisors. These papers suggest an assortment of workable infrastructure developments: two large-scale and comprehensive initiatives, some promising proposals and technologies, and a series of local, exploratory work. Collectively, they provide us with models for further developing evidence-based cognitive-behavioural supervision, and offer practical suggestions for giving supervisors the tools and support to maximize their supervisees’ learning, and to improve the associated client outcomes. Much research and development work remains to be done, and successful implementation will require institutional and political support, as well as cross-cultural adaptations. We conclude with an optimistic assessment of progress toward addressing some of the infrastructure improvements required to adequately support supervisors.
Objectives: Following pediatric moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI), few predictors have been identified that can reliably identify which individuals are at risk for long-term cognitive difficulties. This study sought to determine the relative contribution of detailed descriptors of injury severity as well as demographic and psychosocial factors to long-term cognitive outcomes after pediatric msTBI. Methods: Participants included 8- to 19-year-olds, 46 with msTBI and 53 uninjured healthy controls (HC). Assessments were conducted in the post-acute and chronic stages of recovery. Medical record review provided details regarding acute injury severity. Parents also completed a measure of premorbid functioning and behavioral problems. The outcome of interest was four neurocognitive measures sensitive to msTBI combined to create an index of cognitive performance. Results: Results indicated that none of the detailed descriptors of acute injury severity predicted cognitive performance. Only the occurrence of injury, parental education, and premorbid academic competence predicted post-acute cognitive functioning. Long-term cognitive outcomes were best predicted by post-acute cognitive functioning. Discussion: The findings suggest that premorbid factors influence cognitive outcomes nearly as much as the occurrence of a msTBI. Furthermore, of youth with msTBI who initially recover to a level of moderate disability or better, a brief cognitive battery administered within several months after injury can best predict which individuals will experience poor long-term cognitive outcomes and require additional services. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1–8)
This paper explores cultural and professional dynamics of HIV general practice nursing in Australia. It highlights specific contributions that HIV general practice nurses make to HIV medicine and considers how nurses’ clinical practice has been shaped by past experiences of the AIDS crisis and subsequent developments in HIV medicine.
In international contexts, nurses in HIV medicine commonly work as part of shared-care teams. In recent years, HIV general practice nursing has become a prioritised area for primary health care in Australia.
Data for this analysis were drawn from 45 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses and general practitioners (GPs) who provide HIV care in general practice, and key informants who work in policy, advocacy or education and training of the HIV general practice workforce.
Viewed through a socio-ecological framework of social capital, descriptive content analysis highlights a unique and strong HIV health professional identity, which emerged out of the adverse conditions experienced by nurses, GPs and allied health professionals during the 1980s AIDS crisis. Participants reported that today, HIV general practice nursing includes information provision, HIV treatment side-effect management, teaching patients methods to increase adherence to HIV treatments and capacity building with allied health professionals. Participants reported that HIV general practice nurses can reduce the clinical burden on GPs, ameliorate patients’ exposure to HIV health care-related stigma and discrimination and facilitate the emergence of a comprehensive and personalised model of shared primary health care based on trust and rapport, which is desired by people with HIV. This study's findings support the future expansion of the role of HIV general practice nurses in Australia and internationally. General practice nursing will become increasingly important in the scaling up of HIV testing and in caring for increasing numbers of people living with HIV.
This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first  focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.
There is a growing trend within energy and environmental simulation to consider tightly coupled solutions to multiphysics problems. This can be seen in nuclear reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in nuclear fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. In energy and environmental applications, energy extraction involves geomechanics, flow through porous media and fractured formations, adding heat transport for enhanced oil recovery and geothermal applications, and adding reactive transport in the case of applications modeling the underground flow of contaminants. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the physics coupling efforts to date utilize simple code coupling or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally the different physics often reside on distinct meshes and data are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy.
Approximately 1,300 growers from 22 states were surveyed during 2010 to determine herbicide use. Cropping systems included continuous glyphosate-resistant corn, cotton, and soybean, and various combinations of these crops and rotations with non–glyphosate-resistant crops. The most commonly used herbicide for both fall and spring applications was glyphosate followed by synthetic auxin herbicides. Herbicide application in spring was favored over application in the fall. The percentage of growers in a glyphosate-only system was as high as 69% for some cropping systems. Excluding glyphosate, the most frequently used herbicides included photosystem II, mitotic, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. A higher percentage of growers integrated herbicides other than glyphosate during 2010 compared with 2005. Extensive educational efforts have promoted resistance management by increasing the diversity of herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. However, a considerable percentage of growers continued use of only glyphosate from the period of 2005 to 2010, and this practice most likely will continue to exert a high level of selection for evolved glyphosate-resistant weed species.
A 2010 survey of 1,299 corn, cotton, and soybean growers was conducted to determine their attitudes and awareness regarding glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds and resultant implications on weed management practices. An additional 350 growers included in the current study participated in a 2005 survey, and these answers were compared across time so that cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of responses could be made. Most growers surveyed in 2010 were aware of the potential for weeds to evolve resistance to glyphosate; however, many growers were not aware of glyphosate resistance in specific weeds in their county or state. Growers in the South were different from growers in other geographic regions and were significantly more aware of local cases of GR weeds. Awareness of GR weeds did not increase appreciably from 2005 to 2010, but the percentage who reported GR weeds as problematic was significantly higher. Grower reports of GR weeds on-farm in 2010 were up considerably from 2005, with growers in the South reporting significantly more instances than growers in other regions. Growers in the South were also more likely to consider glyphosate resistance a serious problem. Overall, 30% of growers did not consider GR weeds to be a problem. It appears that most growers received information about glyphosate resistance from farm publications, although in the South this percentage was less than for other geographic regions. Growers in the South received more information from universities and extension sources.
The increasingly large sample size requirements of modern adult mental
health research suggests the need for a data collection and diagnostic
application that can be used across a broad range of clinical and
To develop a data collection and diagnostic application that can be used
across a broad range of clinical and research settings.
We expanded and redeveloped the OPCRIT system into a broadly applicable
diagnostic and data-collection package and carried out an interrater
reliability study of this new tool.
OPCRIT+ performed well in an interrater reliability study with relatively
inexperienced clinicians, giving a combined, weighted kappa of 0.70 for
OPCRIT+ showed good overall interrater reliability scores for diagnoses.
It is now incorporated in the electronic patient record of the Maudsley
and associated hospitals. OPCRIT+ can be downloaded free of charge at
Biaxially textured MgO buffer layers were deposited on metal substrates using “inclined substrate deposition” (ISD). The influence of the substrate inclination angle, deposition rate, and film thickness on the texture is shown. Scanning electron microscopy reveals columnar growth. We developed a growth model to explain the texturing. To test this model we have carried out 3D Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that the preferred orientation arises from mutual shadowing of the columns and directional surface diffusion due to their initial momentum.
YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films deposited on the ISD buffer layers are highly textured. The ab-planes of the YBCO are tilted with respect to the surface by typically 25° towards the direction of MgO vapor incidence. Therefore, the critical current density jc is anisotropic with up to 8 × 105MA/cm2 in one direction and 4 × 105MA/cm2 in the other. For tape coating the MgO deposition direction can be chosen so that the high jc is along the tape.
Recently, a new materials characterization instrument and technique employing simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry/X-ray diffraction/mass spectrometry (DSC/XRD/MS) have been developed at Dow. Use of this technology can be illlustrated by the study of various materials such as polymers, organics/pharmaceuticals, inorganics, and catalysts.
Presented here is the use of the DSC/XRD/MS instrument to study the thermostructural behavior of four model copper-based catalyst systems during activation and regeneration. The instrument allows simultaneous generation of thermal, structural and chemical data in real-time during temperature programmed analysis and provides useful insights into the chemical and physical processes occurring. In addition, the calorimetry data yield qualititative information on the magnitude and rate of heat flow, while the diffraction data provide structural dynamics of reduction, oxidation and crystallite growth.
The results of this study conclusively show cuprous oxide as an intermediate in the reduction of the copper oxide portion of each of the model catalysts. However, such features as the onset temperature and copper surface area varied widely among the four catalysts in response to the same chemical event conducted under similar experimental conditions. On the other hand, oxidation runs on the reduced catalysts were all similar to each other, first producing cuprous oxide from copper metal over a broad range of temperature, followed by the oxidation of cuprous oxide to copper oxide at even higher temperatures.