We investigated the effects of high-Ca fat-free milk phase (MD) (prescription of approximately 1500 mg of Ca/d) v. low-Ca phase (CD) (prescription of approximately 800 mg of Ca/d) in an energy-restricted diet on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d). In this randomised cross-over design, fourteen adults with T2DM (49·5 (sd 8·6) years, BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2) consumed either MD or CD for 12 weeks, with a washout of 18 weeks between phases. A breakfast shake containing 700 mg (MD) or 6·4 mg (CD) of Ca was consumed in the laboratory. In addition, energy-restricted diets were prescribed (800 mg of dietary Ca/d). Waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, fasting TAG, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting total cholesterol, fasting LDL-cholesterol, fasting HDL-cholesterol, HDL:LDL ratio, HDL:TAG ratio and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Ca consumption during the study was equivalent to 1200 mg/d during MD and 525 mg/d during CD. There was a greater reduction in WC, SBP, DBP and LAP index after MD compared with CD. HDL:LDL ratio increased and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, SBP, DBP and LAP index decreased only in MD. The consumption of approximately 1200 mg of Ca/d (700 mg from fat-free milk+500mg from other dietary sources) associated with an energy-restricted diet decreased some of the MetS components and cardiometabolic measures in adults with T2DM.