To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A 2018 workshop on the White Mountain Apache Tribe lands in Arizona examined ways to enhance investigations into cultural property crime (CPC) through applications of rapidly evolving methods from archaeological science. CPC (also looting, graverobbing) refers to unauthorized damage, removal, or trafficking in materials possessing blends of communal, aesthetic, and scientific values. The Fort Apache workshop integrated four generally partitioned domains of CPC expertise: (1) theories of perpetrators’ motivations and methods; (2) recommended practice in sustaining public and community opposition to CPC; (3) tactics and strategies for documenting, investigating, and prosecuting CPC; and (4) forensic sedimentology—uses of biophysical sciences to link sediments from implicated persons and objects to crime scenes. Forensic sedimentology served as the touchstone for dialogues among experts in criminology, archaeological sciences, law enforcement, and heritage stewardship. Field visits to CPC crime scenes and workshop deliberations identified pathways toward integrating CPC theory and practice with forensic sedimentology’s potent battery of analytic methods.
It is a privilege to have the opportunity to contribute to a festschrift for Professor Nigel Lowe. He is one of four people who have been a major influence in the development of my professional life.
I first met Nigel in 1976 in Somerset House in what was then the Principal Registry of the Family Division. I was representing the London Borough of Camden on one of the early local authority wardship applications before Senior Registrar Norman Turner in a very pleasant room overlooking the Thames.
Nigel was engaged in some initial research on wardship. As I recall we asked for the Registrar's permission (or leave as it would then have been called) to discuss the case outside court. We really did take the protective nature of the jurisdiction seriously in those days.
That chance meeting led to a writing (and teaching and research and even tennis) partnership over 40 years. It led more immediately to the co-writing and publication of the first edition of Wards of Court in 1979. I say co-writing but in reality it was an opportunity for Nigel to coach a junior partner on legal research and academic writing. I like to think that I contributed with a little knowledge about the workings of local authorities and by emphasising the need for such works to be accessible to practitioners, legal and non-legal. It was one of life's odd coincidences that the opportunity to prepare the first edition occurred when I broke a leg. As a result I spent many research hours cloistered in the law library at Bristol University.
The history and scope of wardship was of course at that time relatively unexplored. Mr Justice Cross (as he then was) wrote briefly about the subject in 1967, noting that the only book of reference had last been published in 1926. We know that the origins of wardship date from feudal times. The case law provides a fascinating insight in the social history of our treatment of children over the centuries.
Oddly enough I had represented a party in wardship proceedings in the Chancery Division during my articles in 1970, the year before such proceedings were transferred to the Family Division.
We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5–27 and 30–40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.
The shock between the colliding winds in binary systems containing two massive stars accelerates particles to relativistic energies. These energetic particles can produce observable non-thermal radiation from the radio to γ-rays. The important physical processes in such systems are very similar to those we have proposed for non-thermal emissions from single hot stars, which have shocks generated by instabilities in the radiatively driven stellar winds. This paper discusses the theory and observations of non-thermal radiation in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regions from both single stars and massive binaries. Similarities and differences between the two types of systems are outlined. We discuss two important physical effects that apparently have been neglected in previous theoretical work on colliding wind binaries.
Although we now know of quite a few WR-O star binary systems, only HD 193793 is well studied across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Hence it affords us the best opportunity to test various models for the system against a wealth of observational data. In this paper we present the results of 8 years of monitoring the radio flux density from HD 193793 with the VLA. This database is unique both in terms of its dense coverage of an entire binary cycle and because it extends the radio coverage to 2 cm wavelength, a shorter wavelength than previously available. With this data we are able to simultaneously solve for the time dependent attenuation in the system and the intrinsic radio luminosity. The standard model of spherically symmetric colliding winds faces severe difficulties in explaining the observations. We conclude that the radio data are most readily interpreted in the context of a WR star wind which is confined to a disk. A disk model for the WR wind also provides a natural explanation for the sudden formation of dust just after periastron.
We have compared the properties of galaxy groups in the CfA redshift survey to those in the cold dark matter simulations of Davis, Efstathiou, Frenk and White (1985). Redshift catalogs (four realizations) were made from the open universe (unbiased; mass follows light) simulations at expansion factors of 1.8 (Ω=.3, labelled T1) and 3.2 (Ω=.2, labeled T2) relative to initial conditions, and from the biased formation version of the Ω=1 simulation (5 realizations) at expansion factor 1.4. The T1, T2 and biased catalog sets were volume limited at distances of 5000, 3000 and 6500 km s−1 respectively, and magnitude limited (m≤14.5) beyond. They were then randomly culled by 25%, 9% and 10%, respectively, to match the density of comparison versions of the CfA Redshift Survey which were similarly volume limited. We have devised a percolation type grouping algorithm which lets the linking distance on the sky increase with distance in the magnitude limited regions, while keeping the radial velocity linking criteria fixed. We've verified that this produces groups with density contrast uncorrelated with distance and (unlike the Geller-Huchra criteria) M/L uncorrelated with group size for the open models. M/L may, however, show a slight negative correlation with distance.
Analysis of in situ neutron powder diffraction data collected for the porous framework material Zn(hba) during gas adsorption reveals a two-stage response of the host lattice to increasing CO2 guest concentration, suggesting progressive occupation of multiple CO2 adsorption sites with different binding strengths. The response of the lattice to moderate CH4 guest concentrations is virtually indistinguishable from the response to CO2, demonstrating that the influence of host–guest interactions on the Zn(hba) framework is defined more strongly by the concentration than by the identity of the guests.
Computerised cognitive–behavioural therapy (cCBT) for depression has the potential to be efficient therapy but engagement is poor in primary care trials.
We tested the benefits of adding telephone support to cCBT.
We compared telephone-facilitated cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 187) to minimally supported cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 182) in a pragmatic randomised trial (trial registration: ISRCTN55310481). Outcomes were depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD)-7) and somatoform complaints (PHQ-15) at 4 and 12 months.
Use of cCBT increased by a factor of between 1.5 and 2 with telephone facilitation. At 4 months PHQ-9 scores were 1.9 points lower (95% CI 0.5–3.3) for telephone-supported cCBT. At 12 months, the results were no longer statistically significant (0.9 PHQ-9 points, 95% CI −0.5 to 2.3). There was improvement in anxiety scores and for somatic complaints.
Telephone facilitation of cCBT improves engagement and expedites depression improvement. The effect was small to moderate and comparable with other low-intensity psychological interventions.
Long-range temporal choices are built into contemporary policy-making, with policy decisions having consequences that play out across generations. Decisions are made on behalf of the public who are assumed to give much greater weight to their welfare than to the welfare of future generations. The paper investigates this assumption. It briefly discusses evidence from sociological and economic studies before reporting the findings of a British survey of people's intergenerational time preferences based on a representative sample of nearly 10,000 respondents. Questions focused on two sets of policies: (i) health policies to save lives and (ii) environmental policies to protect against floods that would severely damage homes, businesses and other infrastructure. For both sets of policies, participants were offered a choice of three policy options, each bringing greater or lesser benefits to their, their children's and their grandchildren's generations. For both saving lives and protecting against floods, only a minority selected the policy that most benefited their generation; the majority selected policies bringing equal or greater benefits to future generations. Our study raises questions about a core assumption of standard economic evaluation, pointing instead to concern for future generations as a value that many people hold in common.
The spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the Hubble Space Telescope causes more than 80% of the light from a point source to be spread into a halo of radius of 2–3 arcsec. The point spread function (PSF) is both time variant (resulting from spacecraft jitter and desorption of the secondary mirror support structure) and space variant (owing to the Cassegrain repeater optics in the Wide Field / Planetary Camera). A variety of image restoration algorithms have been utilized on HST data with some success, although optimal restorations require better modeling of the PSF and the development of efficient restoration algorithms that accommodate a spacevariant PSF. The first HST servicing mission (December 1993) will deploy a corrective optics system for the Faint Object Camera and the two spectrographs and a second generation WF/PC with internal corrective optics. As simulations demonstrate, however, the restoration algorithms developed now for aberrated images will be very useful for removing the remaining diffraction features and optimizing dynamic range in post-servicing mission data.
The Oxford 14C accelerator has operated with beam for some 400 hours. This report describes the progress made towards achieving dates from milligram samples with the required accuracy of better than 2%. In summary, it shows how 14C is relatively easily detected, but that the overall beam optical system is, at present, rather sensitive to effects which prevent reliable maintenance of the necessary isotope ratio stability. These effects can probably be eliminated by careful attention to details of the design rather than by major modifications.
To date, surveys of attitudes toward dementia have largely been conducted using unvalidated materials or have focused on healthcare professionals supporting people affected by dementia. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of public attitudes toward people affected by dementia in Bristol and South Gloucestershire.
A survey was carried out using a modified version of the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ). Data from people living outside the area, and people who were working with people affected by dementia were omitted from the analysis. Responses from the remaining 794 ADQ questionnaires were weighted to correct for under-represented age, gender, and ethnic groups.
Younger people held more positive attitudes toward dementia than older people. Individuals who identified themselves as White held more positive attitudes than non-White individuals. Individuals with personal experience of dementia held more positive attitudes than those with no experience of dementia. When considering age differences, gender played a role, with younger men having more positive scores than other groups.
This is one of the first surveys of public attitudes to dementia to use a validated questionnaire such as the ADQ. The study provides a baseline of attitudes toward dementia for the Bristol and South Gloucestershire areas, against which we will be able to compare changes over time. This is important due to the emphasis in public health campaigns on improving attitudes toward dementia.
We present here analyses of a radio survey of Abell clusters at 1400 MHz using the NRA0 91-m telescope. Details will appear in a paper to be submitted to the Astronomical Journal where we present two lists. The first contains sources within 0.5 of an Abell radius (hereafter Ra, 3 Mpc if H=50) of the center of an Abell cluster. The second contains those clusters for which there were no sources within that limit. The flux limit is 100 mJy, the beam size ∼10 1/2 arcmin, and the declination limit −19°30′. For consistency we use Corwin's (1974) m10 − z calibration throughout. The errors in m10 and therefore z and Ra, combined with a beam large compared to galaxy and cluster size (preventing identifications) preclude all but the simplest analyses which we present here.
The fourth season of the Fezzan Project continued the interdisciplinary approaches of previous seasons. Geographical and environmental work focused principally in sampling sediments for scientific dating and with integrating ground observation with remote sensing data. Excavations continued at Old Germa, where the site has now reached Garamantian levels. In a separate development, the tentative identification has been made of an early mosque at the site, in an area adjacent to the G1 excavation trench. Substantial results were gained from work aimed at enhancing the important data recorded by Charles Daniels in his earlier excavations and survey in the Wadi al-Hayat. The enhancement of the Daniels' survey archive was integrated with completion of the wider prospection being undertaken by the new project. This survey included fieldwalking, standing building survey, analysis of the foggara irrigation systems and recording of rock art scenes. Finds work comprised the finalisation of a pottery type series for the Germa area, the study of small finds from the recent survey work, botanical analysis and completion of lithics recording. A programme of radiocarbon dating is now being undertaken to improve the phasing of sites and monuments. The first two volumes of final reports are now in preparation.