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Objects of art and archaeology are relicts of the past, and art historians, archaeologists and conservators are constantly concerned with the questions of where, when or by whom such artifacts were made. Usually stylistic considerations can provide answers to these questions, but as styles were sometimes copied at locations and times quite different from those for which they were most characteristic, material analysis is often essential when one is attempting to infer how and of what materials an object was made. The use of several compounds e.g. as pigments in paintings, or the deliberate alloying of Cu with Sn, As, Sb and Pb, has varied greatly from region to region and from time to time and can be used to infer the geographic origin of an object or at least the origin of the materials, out of which it was made.
Jim George, Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the School of Politics and International Relations at the Australian National University,
Richard Devetak, Associate Professor in International Relations in the School of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland,
Martin Weber, Senior Lecturer in the School of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland
This chapter introduces students to the rich and controversial legacy of Marxism and one of its major offshoots in the twentieth century, critical theory. The chapter is presented in two parts. The first touches on the historical and intellectual context that ‘created’ Marxism; Marx's notion of historical materialism and the issue of how Marx's ideas have been received in IR. The second part concentrates on the two strands of critical theory that have emerged within IR: one derived from the so-called Frankfurt School and the other from Italian thinker Antonio Gramsci.
Historical and intellectual context: Marx and the critique of capitalism
During the nineteenth century, European societies underwent dramatic and sometimes traumatic changes internally while expanding their colonial rule to almost every corner of the world. Importantly, this expansion of European imperialism and the global consolidation of what is often referred to as the ‘Westphalian states-system’ occurred simultaneously with the comprehensive shift to industrialised production (known as the Industrial Revolution), significant changes in the ownership and control of property and large-scale population transfers, both internally and externally towards parts of the colonised world. By the nineteenth century economic affairs were also changing significantly, with the gradual demise of mercantilism and the rise of capitalism. Victorian Britain (England, specifically) had emerged as the hotbed of these developments, with its extraordinary innovations in industrial production and technology, and in the capitalist production process. It also provided many of the conceptual principles for understanding and legitimising the socio-economic transformations inaugurated by capitalism.
At the intellectuall core of this major historical transformation were philosophers such as Adam Smith (1723–90) in the eighteenth century and David Ricardo (1772– 1823) in the nineteenth century, who helped develop what became known as the liberal ‘political economy’. An outgrowth of moral philosophy, this field of inquiry was concerned primarily with the political and economic conditions of social change. It also became the basis for the discipline of (neoclassical) economics.
The new political economists advanced more stringent conceptions of ‘efficiency’ under capitalism. Arguing against the accumulated wealth and land ownership of the traditional aristocracy, they insisted wealth must be circulated and invested across the whole society. In this regard, they were advocates for an ‘entrepreneurial’ shift from subsistence economies to industrial production, and for social progress guided by scientific reason.
Is financial literacy a substitute or complement for financial advice? We analyze the decision by consumers to seek financial advice in the form of credit counseling. Credit counseling is an important component of the consumer credit sector for consumers facing debt problems. Our analysis accounts for the endogeneity of an individual's financial situation to financial literacy, and the endogeneity of financial literacy to exposure to credit counseling. Results show counseling substitutes for financial literacy. Individuals with better literacy are 60% less likely to use credit counseling. These results suggest that credit counseling provides a safety net for poor financial literacy.