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Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese people in England has led policymakers to consider regulating the use of price promotions on foods high in fat, sugar and salt content. In January 2019, the government opened a consultation programme for a policy proposal that significantly restricts the use of price promotions that can induce consumers to buy higher volumes of unhealthy foods and beverages. These proposed policies are the first of their kind in public health and are believed to reduce excess purchasing and, therefore, overconsumption of unhealthy products. This study summarises evidence relating price promotions to the purchasing of food and drink for home consumption and places it in the context of the proposed policy.
Non-systematic review of quantitative analyses of price promotions in food and drink published in peer-reviewed journals and sighted by PubMed, ScienceDirect & EBSCOhost between 1980 and January 2018.
While the impact of price promotions on sales has been of interest to marketing academics for a long time with modelling studies showing that its use has increased food and drink sales by 12–43 %, it is only now being picked up in the public health sphere. However, existing evidence does not consider the effects of removing or restricting the use of price promotions across the food sector. In this commentary, we discuss existing evidence, how it deals with the complexity of shoppers’ behaviour in reacting to price promotions on foods and, importantly, what can be learned from it in this policy context.
The current evidence base supports the notion that price promotions increase purchasing of unhealthy food, and while the proposed restriction policy is yet to be evaluated for consumption and health effects, there is arguably sufficient evidence to proceed. This evidence is not restricted to volume-based promotions. Close monitoring and proper evaluation should follow to provide empirical evidence of its intended and unintended effects.
The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate discourses on foreign language teaching and, in particular, the teaching of English in Switzerland, with a view to showing how these have come to play a significant, although inadvertent, socio-political role that potentially challenges Swiss national cohesion at the federal level.
First aid, particularly bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is an important element in the chain of survival. However, little is known about what influences populations to undertake first aid/CPR training, update their training, and use of the training.
The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of people who have first aid/CPR training, those who have updated their training, and use of these skills.
As part of the 2011 state-wide, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of people over 18 years of age living in Queensland, Australia, stratified by gender and age group, three questions about first aid training, re-training, and skill uses were explored.
Of the 1,277 respondents, 73.2% reported having undertaken some first aid/CPR training and 39.5% of those respondents had used their first aid/CPR skills. The majority of respondents (56.7%) had not updated their first aid/CPR skills in the past three years, and an additional 2.5% had never updated their skills. People who did not progress beyond year 10 in school and those in lower income groups were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training. Males and people in lower income groups were less likely to have recently updated their first aid/CPR training. People with chronic health problems were in a unique demographic sub-group; they were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training but more likely to have administered first aid/CPR.
Training initiatives that target people on the basis of education level, income group, and the existence of chronic health problems might be one strategy for improving bystander CPR rates when cardiac arrest occurs in the home.
Franklin RC, Watt K, Aitken P, Brown LH, Leggat PA. Characteristics associated with first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and use in Queensland, Australia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):155–160