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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Clay minerals from the Indus Canyon and eastern clinoform since ~12 ka are uniformly rich in smectite and illite, similar to those from the Holocene Indus flood plains. A systematic enrichment of smectite in the proximal delta compared to the canyon and eastern clinoform argues for preferential capture of smectite close to the river mouth since ~12 ka. There is a rapid shift to a more smectite-rich assemblage in the canyon and eastern clinoform after ~5 ka. This change is probably caused by a change in sediment source, with less direct flux from the Himalaya and more erosion of older, weathered, smectite-rich sediment from the Indus River flood plains, driven by incision of the Indus and its tributaries into the floodplain as summer monsoon rains weakened. This influx of smectite is consistent with lower kaolinite/smectite values since ~5 ka. The onset of large-scale agricultural activities since ~5 ka, especially starting with the Harappan Civilization, may also have enhanced incision and erosion of floodplain sediments over the same time period. This study reports for the first time how monsoon strength variations since ~12 ka affected the clay mineral assemblages and sediment provenance in a major submarine canyon.
The morphology and growth habits of Evactinopora species of the Evactinoporidae (new family) are documented. This distinctive family of free-living bryozoans has a radial colony form at all growth stages. During a brief attachment phase on a hard substrate, the colony morphology grew as an expanding cone with vertical folds. Following detachment of the nascent colony from this hard substrate, it settled on soft sediment and the free-living expanding colony acquired a star-like form by producing slender outrigger rays. Continued growth produced a radial array of vertical vanes containing feeding autozooecia. The colony maintained a vertical orientation on soft sediment by means of outrigger rays and secretion of solid skeleton on the colony base that provided ballast. The radial growth pattern, outrigger rays, and vertical vanes developed as adaptive characters suitable for free-living life on soft sediment. North American species of Evactinopora are redefined and described taxonomically on the basis of zoarial and zooecial characters and a new species, Evactinopora mangeri, erected. The new family Evactinoporidae is established on the basis of the novel characters of early colony detachment from a hard surface, radial growth pattern through life, generation of outrigger rays, and growth of vertical vanes from the top of rays.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Cougar Mountain Cave is located in Oregon's Fort Rock Basin. In 1958, avocationalist John Cowles excavated most of the cave's deposits and recovered abundant fiber, lithic, wood, and osseous artifacts. A crew from the University of California, Davis returned to the site in 1966 to evaluate the potential for further research, collecting additional lithic and fiber artifacts from disturbed deposits and in situ charcoal from apparently undisturbed deposits. Because Cowles took few notes or photographs, the Cougar Mountain Cave collection—most of which is housed at the Favell Museum in Klamath Falls, Oregon—has largely gone unstudied even though it contains diagnostic artifacts spanning the Holocene and, potentially, the terminal Pleistocene. We recently submitted charcoal and basketry from the site for radiocarbon dating, providing the first reliable sense of when Cougar Mountain Cave was first occupied. Our results indicate at least a Younger Dryas age for initial occupation. The directly dated basketry has provided new information about the age ranges and spatial distributions of diagnostic textile types in the northwestern Great Basin.
The early Middle Ages saw a major expansion of cereal cultivation across large parts of Europe thanks to the spread of open-field farming. A major project to trace this expansion in England by deploying a range of scientific methods is generating direct evidence for this so-called ‘Medieval Agricultural Revolution’.
The noted New Zealand Maori authority Te Rangi Hiroa declared that the rich heritage of traditional instruments was now silent, they were no longer played, they would be ‘forever mute'(Buck 1949:270). Among the predominant flutes and trumpets of this instrumentarium were voice modifiers (jews harp, mouth bow), whizzers and whirlers, and percussion (rattlers, castanets, gong, and other ‘found’ instruments). Most enigmatic of all was the pūtωrino, the so-called bugle-flute, perhaps unique in the world's instruments, a combination of three instruments—flute, trumpet and voice modifier. A description of the sound of this instrument 'Me te wai e utuutu ana' (like water ‘bubbling into a calabash held under the surface of the water’ Anderson 1934: 275) provides our title, and one of the signposts in the revival of the pūtωrino.
Our objectives in Instrument design & development are to improve the QUALITY OF THE DATA which can be obtained and presented to a computer system for analysis and to explore the corresponding choices which such improved data quality allows.
In usual EDXRF systems, the detector views the entire scattered and fluorescence radiation from a sample illuminated either by a direct beam or by a secondary target. In either case, the beam may be filtered before it strikes the specimen. Most efforts to mono-chromatize the exciting radiation or to reduce the background under the fluorescent peaks from the sample result in (a) decreases in X-ray flux available for excitation, (b) significant increases in power expended in the X-ray tube, or (c) extremely close coupling of the system components. These are NOT THE ONLY CHOICES AVAILABLE.
A more efficient utilisation of marine-derived sources of dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA) in cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) could be achieved by nutritional strategies that maximise endogenous n-3 LC PUFA synthesis. The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of n-3 LC PUFA biosynthesis and the resultant effect on fillet nutritional quality in large fish. Four diets were manufactured, providing altered levels of dietary n-3 substrate, namely, 18 : 3n-3, and end products, namely, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. After 283 d of feeding, fish grew in excess of 3000 g and no differences in growth performance or biometrical parameters were recorded. An analysis of fatty acid composition and in vivo metabolism revealed that endogenous production of n-3 LC PUFA in fish fed a diet containing no added fish oil resulted in fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA comparable with fish fed a diet with added fish oil. However, this result was not consistent among all treatments. Another major finding of this study was the presence of abundant dietary n-3 substrate, with the addition of dietary n-3 end product (i.e. fish oil) served to increase final fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA. Specifically, preferential β-oxidation of dietary C18n-3 PUFA resulted in conservation of n-3 LC PUFA from catabolism. Ultimately, this study highlights the potential for endogenous synthesis of n-3 LC PUFA to, partially, support a substantial reduction in the amount of dietary fish oil in diets for Atlantic salmon reared in seawater.