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We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
X-ray Microfluorescence (XRMF) analysis uses a finely collimated beam of X-rays to excite fluorescent radiation in a sample (Nichols & Ryon 1986). Characteristic fluorescent radiation emanating from the small interaction volume element is acquired using an energy dispersive detector placed in close proximity to the sample. The signal from the detector is processed using a computer-based multi-channel analyzer.
XRMF imaging is accomplished by translating the sample through the small X-ray beam in a step or continuous raster mode. As the sample is translated, a pixel by pixel X-ray intensity image is formed for each chemical element in the sample. The resulting digitized image information for each element is stored for subsequent processing and/or display. The images, in the form of elemental maps representing identical areas, may be displayed and color coded by element and/or intensity and then overlayed for spatial correlation.
The present study of parameters affecting the performance of an X-ray microfluorescence system has shown how such systems use X-ray beams with effective spot sizes less than 100 micrometers to bridge the gap in analytical capabilities between predominately surface micro analytical techniques such as SEM/EDX and bulk analytical methods such as standard XRF analysis. The combination of XRMF spectroscopy with digital imaging allows chemical information to be obtained and mapped from surface layers as well as from layers or structures beneath the sample surface. Simultaneously, it provides valuable high resolution chemical information in a readily interpreted visual form which displays the homogeneity within a given layer or structure. XRMF systems retain the advantages of minimal sample preparation, non-destructive analysis and high sensitivity inherent to XRF methods.
We have recently shown how capture-recapture models can be used in conjunction with stratigraphic range data to estimate taxonomic extinction rates and taxonomic diversity. Here we present a new method that can be used to estimate taxonomic turnover (defined here as the proportion of taxa extant at time i, that originated in the interval i – 1 to i). We used these methods in conjunction with stratigraphic range data for families in five phyla of Paleozoic marine invertebrates. We estimated fossil encounter probabilities, extinction rates, diversity, and turnover and used these estimates to test hypotheses about variation among phyla and geologic series. Encounter probabilities varied among taxa and showed evidence of a decrease over time for the geologic series examined. The number of families varied substantially among the five phyla and showed some evidence of an increase over the series examined. There was no evidence of variation in extinction probabilities among the phyla. Although there was evidence of temporal variation in extinction probabilities within phyla, there was no evidence of a linear decrease in extinction probabilities over time, as has been reported by others. We did find evidence of high extinction probabilities for the two intervals that had been identified by others as periods of mass extinction. We found no evidence of variation in turnover among the five phyla. There was evidence of temporal variation in turnover, with greater turnover occurring in the older series.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact and efficacy of pulse oximetry screening for CHD in a level-two neonatal unit without on-site access to paediatric echocardiography.
All neonatal unit admissions between 1 September, 2011 and 31 August, 2013 were reviewed to determine the outcomes of newborns identified by pulse oximetry screening. Record linkage with the National Congenital Heart Disease Audit allowed follow-up of newborns with a negative screening result.
There were 11,233 live births during the study period, with 973 neonatal unit admissions unrelated to pulse oximetry screening. From the remaining screening population of 10,260 newborns, 23 were admitted on the basis of a screen-positive result; three of the 23 patients went on to have urgent echocardiograms, and two were found to have critical CHD. In the 21 newborns without critical CHD, an alternative diagnosis was made in 16 cases. Record linkage with the National Congenital Heart Disease Audit indicated that no newborns born in the hospital during the study period received surgery for critical CHD following negative screening. The estimated sensitivity of screening was 100% (95% confidence interval 15.81–100%) and specificity was 99.80% (95% confidence interval 99.69–99.87%), with a false-positive rate of 0.20% (95% confidence interval 0.13–0.31%).
The introduction of pulse oximetry screening to a hospital where paediatric echocardiography services are not available is practical, results in very few referrals to the regional paediatric cardiology centre, and detects cases of CHD that would otherwise go undiagnosed. Record linkage with a national CHD database provides a straightforward method for tracking cases of CHD that may have been missed by screening.
Sir Richard Steele (1672–1729), soldier, courtier and dramatist, is best remembered for his founding of two literary and political periodicals, the Tatler and the Spectator (the latter jointly with his friend Joseph Addison). These two volumes of his letters to friends and family were compiled by the publisher John Nichols and published in 1809. Nichols claims in his preface that these letters, 'some of them evidently scribbled when their amiable Author was probably not in the very best condition for penmanship', are nonetheless of great interest, 'as they contain the private and undisguised opinions of the man who took upon himself to be the Censor of the age'. Volume 2 contains letters to his wife and daughters, and to literary and political figures of his day, including Sir Robert Walpole, Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, the duke of Newcastle, and the theatre managers Cibber and Booth.
Sir Richard Steele (1672–1729), soldier, courtier and dramatist, is best remembered for his founding of two literary and political periodicals, the Tatler and the Spectator (the latter jointly with his friend Joseph Addison). These two volumes of his letters to friends and family were compiled by the publisher John Nichols and published in 1809. Nichols claims in his preface that these letters, 'some of them evidently scribbled when their amiable Author was probably not in the very best condition for penmanship', are nonetheless of great interest, 'as they contain the private and undisguised opinions of the man who took upon himself to be the Censor of the age'. In Volume 1, many of the letters are addressed to his second wife (both before and after their marriage), others to Addison, Swift, and the duke of Marlborough. Fragments of two unfinished plays by Steele, and one by Addison, are also included.