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Our current global food system – from food production to consumption, including manufacture, packaging, transport, retail and associated businesses – is responsible for extensive negative social and environmental impacts which threaten the long-term well-being of society. This has led to increasing calls from science–policy organizations for major reform and transformation of the global food system. However, our knowledge regarding food system transformations is fragmented and this is hindering the development of co-ordinated solutions. Here, we collate recent research across several academic disciplines and sectors in order to better understand the mechanisms that ‘lock-in’ food systems in unsustainable states.
Remnant field systems and enclosures are key indicators of social change during the 2nd millennium bc – their study has considerable significance in terms of interpreting the Bronze Age in the eastern region. Despite widespread current interest in the topic, little if any evidence for Middle Bronze Age settlement and land division had been found in Norfolk prior to the investigations at Ormesby St Michael which form the focus of this paper. Here, archaeological excavations uncovered evidence for strip field systems, succeeded by a large and well dated enclosure containing at least two structures. These results are supplemented by cropmark evidence for other elements of the enclosure produced by the National Mapping Programme. When combined, the findings are of great significance since they indicate a Middle Bronze Age date for numerous comparable cropmarks recorded across the region as part of the National Mapping Programme, emphasising the crucial value of such work. It can now be suggested that the apparent dearth of Bronze Age field systems in Norfolk is not 'real', but the combined effect of limited excavation of such sites and misinterpretation of those that have been investigated.
The millennium of Edward the Confessor's birth presents an appropriate occasion for a full-scale, up-to-date reassessment of his life, reign and cult, a reappraisal which is provided in the essays here. After an introduction to the many views of Edward's life, and a reinterpretation of the development of his cult, the volume considers his childhood in England and its influence upon his later life; the time he spent in Normandy and the relationships that developed there; and his later life, including an examination of the role played by Edith, his queen. There is also a particular focus upon Westminster Abbey, and the major new discoveries which have recently been made there. Incorporating both broad surveys and the fruits of detailed new work, this book is essential reading for all those interested in late Saxon and Norman England.
CONTRIBUTORS: RICHARD MORTIMER, SIMON KEYNES, ELISABETH VAN HOUTS, STEPHEN BAXTER, PAULINE STAFFORD, ERIC FERNIE, WARWICK RODWELL, RICHARD GEM, EDINA BOZOKY
IT IS BOTH Edward the Confessor's posthumous fortune and misfortune that his reign led into the Norman Conquest. The rights and wrongs of 1066 and the associated propaganda have cast their shadow over everything written about him since, making it a difficult and delicate matter to disinter the historical Edward, and leading to contrasting views among modern historians of the period. The process of turning Edward into England's premier royal saint and Westminster Abbey's principal relic, on the other hand, responded to the needs of the Anglo-Norman world in which that process developed. Edward the man will be especially hard to know: given that it is difficult enough to feel we know our contemporaries, how can we hope to catch even a glimpse of an eleventh-century king? The biographical approach which is our best hope will have its own distortions – kings are not necessarily the prime movers, nor is a society simply the sum of the individuals in it. Sanctity will add a further layer of mystery: his sanctity can only be in the minds of beholders whose views have come down to us. Edward lived in a period not well endowed with writers interested in contemporary affairs, so that original sources are meagre or lacking. Only contemporary sources can be used to shed light on Edward's life, and we shall have to treat them with caution as they will have their own purposes. We shall begin with an examination of contemporary sources, and use them to reflect on how to assess Edward as man and king, and see what historians have made of him. We shall then look at the development of the cult, especially how it arises out of contemporary or near-contemporary views of the king. After his canonisation in 1161 the cult continued to develop. Edward is myth and legend as well as historical figure, and it may not prove easy to separate them.
IN 2005 Westminster Abbey celebrated the millennium of the birth of Edward the Confessor, who refounded and endowed the Abbey and still lies buried in his shrine at the heart of the later, Gothic building. Although the year of Edward's birth is not known precisely, it must have taken place after his parents’ marriage in 1002, and he was certainly alive in 1005 when he appears as a child-witness to a charter: 2005 thus seemed the most suitable time to mark the anniversary. The celebration comprised various events at Edward's shrine in Westminster Abbey, a concert performance of contemporary music and writings, and a conference on ‘Edward: the Man and the Legend’, in association with King's College, London. The conference was the origin of this book, as most of the papers were first given there. It is a pleasure to thank the Principal and the Dean of King's College for their hospitality, and the Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies at King's for generous help towards the cost of the colour illustrations. Thanks are also due to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, especially the then Dean, Very Revd. Wesley Carr, and Canon Nicholas Sagovsky, for their support for the conference and generous subvention towards the costs of publication. The central role in the proceedings was played by Professor David Carpenter, who organised the conference, invited the speakers, and has helped at every stage to see this book through the press. Our thanks are due to Benjamin Wild, who compiled the index, to Christopher Tilley for help with the text, and to Caroline Palmer and the staff of Boydell & Brewer for their customary efficiency in publication.
This study examined the utility of the TELE, a telephone assessment for dementia, in a sample of 269 individuals that was not selected on the basis of previous dementia diagnosis. Thus, the conditions of the study reflect the actual situation in which a screening instrument might be employed. Scores on TELE were compared to dementia diagnoses. Using the best cutoff score, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .90. Longitudinal follow-up established that false positives primarily included those who subsequently developed dementia. Telephone screening for dementia has both clinical and research applications. One recommendation based on our experience is that longitudinal studies should include a telephone interview component for anyone who drops out of the study, to enable characterizing the cognitive status of dropouts.
Hanc autem donationem feci eis pro salute memorati domini mei illustris Regis Henrici et pro salute anime mee et Berthe uxoris mee, et omnium antecessorum et successorum nostrorum. Thus briefly Rannulf de Glanville explains his foundation of Leiston abbey, and we have no reason to doubt his word. This motive is completely conventional and occurs in virtually every contemporary monastic foundation charter, which underlines its validity rather than detracting from it. Perhaps there is no need to look further; but Glanville’s is not the only voice to be heard on the foundation of Leiston abbey, and the founder does not answer all the questions we should like to ask. Did he perhaps have other motives? How did he go about choosing a religious order? To these questions we have to find our own answers. We can arrange facts in a suggestive series, and then ascribe more or less simple intentions which explain them. The shortcomings of such a method are obvious, though the results can be plausible and are often the only ones available. The unreliability of the answer is our penance for the temerity of the question.
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