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Studies have shown that there are overlapping traits and symptoms between autism and psychosis but no study to date has addressed this association from an epidemiological approach in the adult general population. Furthermore, it is not clear whether autistic traits are associated with specific symptoms of psychosis or with psychosis in general. We assess these associations for the first time by using the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 and the APMS 2014, predicting an association between autistic traits and probable psychosis, and specific associations between autistic traits and paranoia and strange experiences.
Participants (N = 7353 in 2007 and 7500 in 2014) completed the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and a 20-item version of the Autism Quotient (AQ-20). Binomial logistic regressions were performed using AQ-20 as the independent variable and probable psychosis and specific symptoms as dependent variables.
In the APMS 2007 dataset, significant associations were found between autism traits and probable psychosis, paranoia, thought insertion, and strange experiences. These results were replicated in APMS 2014 but with the additional significant association between autistic traits and hallucinations. Participants in the highest quartile of the AQ-20, compared with the lowest quartile, had an increased risk of probable psychosis of odds ratio (OR) = 15.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.57–52.6] in APMS 2007 and OR = 22.5 (95% CI 7.64–66.3) in APMS 2014.
Autistic traits are strongly associated with probable psychosis and psychotic experiences with the exception of mania. Limitations such as the cross-sectional nature of the study are discussed.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
TMNCN (where TM = Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+ or Ni2+) have been recently proposed as electrochemically active materials for Na-ion insertion that operate via conversion reaction. Their electrochemical performance for Na-ion batteries is presented here with an emphasis on long-term cycling. With a very low voltage for Na insertion of ∼0.1V vs Na+/Na for MnNCN, the overpotential observed in batteries of MnNCN plays a very important role in their performance, evidencing big differences in the electrochemical performance between materials produced with different nano- and micrometer particle sizes evidenced by SEM images. A more suitable voltage for the conversion reaction accompanied by less overpotential is shown by FeNCN, CoNCN and NiNCN. Despite the lower reversible capacity achieved by FeNCN (450 mAh/g) in comparison with CoNCN and NiNCN in the first cycle; the smallest first-cycle irreversible capacity (220 mAh/g) and the lower voltage plateau (0.3 V vs Na+/Na) make FeNCN a good candidate as an anode material for sodium ion batteries. The voltages of conversion reaction are correlated with the calculated enthalpies of formation suggesting that thermodynamics dominates the observed electrochemical conversion reaction.
We have obtained deep g, r, and i-band Subaru and ultra-deep 3.6 μm IRAC images of parts of the multiply-wrapped stellar stream around the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 5907. We have fitted the surface brightness measurements of the stream with FSPS stellar population synthesis models to derive the metallicity and age of the brightest parts of the stream. The resulting relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.3) is consistent with a major merger scenario but a satellite accretion event cannot be ruled out.
There are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, hence one can consider the case of Earth-like planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU from the star would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for about 8 Gyr. Polarisation due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 102 (104) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a powerful tool to detect close-in planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow one to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, even providing a first characterisation. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue. Preliminary habitability study show also that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on Earth-like planets orbiting CWDs and that the DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, hence white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life from the perspective of UV irradiation.
Many contentious elections end in disputes about alleged fraud, irregularities, and malpractices. How do we know when these claims are valid and when they are false complaints from sore losers? This article describes a new dataset developed by the Electoral Integrity Project. Based on a survey of election experts, the research provides new evidence to compare how national contests around the world are meeting international standards of electoral integrity. The questionnaire includes 49 key indicators clustered into 11 stages of the electoral cycle, as well as generating an overall summary Perception of Electoral Integrity (PEI) 100-point index. The evidence displays high levels of external validity, internal validity, and legitimacy. The PEI datasets allow researchers to gauge the perceived quality of elections worldwide. This study summarizes the PEI’s research design, compares the quality of elections around the globe, and illustrates how electoral integrity is linked with both democracy and development.
Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common form of cyanotic congenital cardiac disease. Patients with previously repaired tetralogy of Fallot are the most common patients seen in the Program for Adults with Congenital Heart Disease at The Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute. Guidelines for the management of these patients are available from multiple sources including The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and The American Heart Association (AHA), The Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and The European Society of Cardiology (ESC). These guidelines describe multiple components related to the care for these patients including strategies for medical follow-up, the management of arrhythmias and electrophysiological diseases, and the treatment of chronic pulmonary insufficiency and stenosis. Several new strategies are available for replacement of the pulmonary valve including transcatheter replacement of the pulmonary valve and replacement of the pulmonary valve with a self-manufactured bicuspid polytetrafluoroethylene pulmonary valve.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
Improved survival in children with complex congenital cardiac disease, such as conotruncal abnormalities, has created a sub-population of children and young adults who need comprehensive multi-disciplinary long-term follow-up. Routine surveillance with comprehensive screening for structural heart disease, functional heart disease, thromboembolic disease, arrhythmias, and associated end-organ dysfunction is important. Future research will better define the care plans for routine surveillance in patients with conotruncal abnormalities.
By adding the information of reported count data to a classical triangle of reserving data, we derive a suprisingly simple method for forecasting IBNR and RBNS claims. A simple relationship between development factors allows to involve and then estimate the reporting and payment delay. Bootstrap methods provide prediction errors and make possible the inference about IBNR and RBNS claims, separately.
Improved survival in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome has created a sub-population of children and young adults who are living with functionally univentricular physiology. Routine surveillance with comprehensive screening for structural cardiac disease, functional cardiac disease, arrhythmias, thromboembolic disease, and associated dysfunction of end organs is important. Future directives will better define the plans of care for routine surveillance in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome remained a largely untreated lesion until the 1980s. In the current era, 75–80% of patients who are managed at “centres of excellence” can be expected to survive into young adulthood after staged palliation. This improved survival has led to an emerging population of patients now entering adulthood with a new set of concerns. We discuss the realised and potential issues that will be faced by these patients, including family planning, transition, and re-operation.