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Titanium and its alloys have been employed in bone plates/screws, and these
are often designed to be removed after recovery. Bone is known to bond to
the surface of Ti alloys. This can lead to re-fracture of newly repaired
bone during operations to remove the implants, however bone does not bond to
Zr-based alloys. The inhibition of bone conduction on the surface of
Zr-based alloys is thought to be due to the presence of a thin layer of
zirconia (ZrO2) on the surface. The purpose of the present study
was to synthesize bioinert films, including ZrO2 on pure Ti
surfaces. In vitro apatite (HAp) formation and in
vivo bone conduction in the tibiae of rats on the films were
Commercial purity Ti was chemically treated with aqueous
H2O2/HNO3 at 353 K for 20 min. The disks
were hydrothermally treated with aqueous
(citric acid) in an autoclave at 453 K for 12 h. Simulated body fluid (SBF)
immersion test and implantation into tibiae of rats were carried out.
In the hydrothermal treatment with aqueous ZrOCl2/NH3,
the surface product was anatase-type TiO2. On the other hand,
when citric acid was added the surface of Ti was covered homogeneously with
a TiO2–ZrO2 composite film though the amount of
ZrO2 was very small. HAp began to form on the non-modified Ti
and TiO2 surfaces after 6 days and 4 days immersion in Hank’s
solution, respectively. On the surfaces of TiO2–ZrO2,
the presence of precipitates was confirmed after 6-8 days. The HAp formation
was suppressed on the surfaces of TiO2–ZrO2.The
present TiO2-ZrO2 surface also showed significantly
lower bone-implant contact ratio in cortical bone compared with
This article discusses applications of focused ion beam micro- and nanofabrication. Emphasis is placed on illustrating the versatility of focused ion beam and dual-platform systems and how they complement conventional processing techniques. The article is divided into four parts: maskless milling, ion beam lithography, ion implantation, and techniques such as in situ micromanipulation.
Nanoimprint and a number of other related techniques are a collection of surface patterning technologies that involve direct contact of a master template with the target surface. As such, they are governed by the laws of contacting bodies, and the mechanics involved can readily be investigated by existing indentation methods or close variants thereof. Among the many demonstrated applications of nanoimprint, lithographic resist processing has generated considerable interest due to its combination of high resolution with rapid throughput over wide areas. Pattern transfer can be achieved by the application of heat and pressure to the stamp (hot embossing), or solely by the generation of shear stress at the contact (cold forming.) In both cases we have found that elastic and viscoplastic strains are present during the forming process, the former of which can considerably alter the characteristics of the pattern transfer. The use of depth sensing instrumented indentation in conjunction with specially designed stamps and a variety of microscopy techniques has allowed us to isolate, control, and measure many of the stresses and strains directly during the imprint process. Further, in a more standard role, the indenter can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of imprinted structures. In this paper we summarize our experimental findings and conclusions on the role of important factors influencing the fidelity of the imprint process including elastic stresses, plastic deformation mechanisms, complexities in the confined deformation rheology, and choices in the form of applied stress. These are illustrated by a series of idealized experiments ranging from the squeeze flow of prepared coupons to the flat punch indentation of thin films and back extrusion into isolated cavities. A connection between these more localized experiments and the established findings and requirements of applications such as wide area lithography and functional polymer patterning will be made to establish the concept of “instrumented imprint”.
Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and micro-contact printing (MCP) are currently receiving considerable attention as techniques that can be used for low cost nanolithography. Here the application of a focused ion beam (FIB) system for the analysis of the elastomer stamps and imprinted patterns which are used in these nanolithography techniques is discussed. It is shown that the ‘lift-out’ technique can be used to prepare cross-sections of both the elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and the imprinted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) patterns. In addition, the use of the FIB system to prepare masters such as gratings and structures with curved shapes that would be difficult to fabricate using conventional processing techniques is discussed.
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