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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Childhood disruptive behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with adverse long-term social and economic outcomes. Trajectories of welfare receipt in early adulthood and the association of childhood behaviors with high welfare receipt trajectories have not been examined.
Boys (n = 1000) from low socioeconomic backgrounds were assessed by kindergarten teachers for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, opposition, and prosociality, and prospectively followed up for 30 years. We used group-base trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories of welfare receipt from age 19–36 years using government tax return records, then examined the association between teacher-rated behaviors and trajectory group membership using mixed effects multinomial regression models.
Three trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (70.8%), declining (19.9%), and chronic (9.3%). The mean annual personal employment earnings (US$) for the three groups at age 35/36 years was $36 500 (s.d. = $24 000), $15 600 (s.d. = $16 275), and $1700 (s.d. = $4800), respectively. Relative to the low welfare receipt group, a unit increase in inattention (mean = 2.64; s.d. = 2.32, range = 0–8) at age 6 was associated with an increased risk of being in the chronic group (relative risk ratio; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) and in the declining group (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23), after adjustment for child IQ and family adversity, and independent of other behaviors. Family adversity was more strongly associated with trajectories of welfare receipt than any behavior.
Boys from disadvantaged backgrounds exhibiting high inattention in kindergarten are at elevated risk of chronic welfare receipt during adulthood. Screening and support for inattentive behaviors beginning in kindergarten could have long-term social and economic benefits for individuals and society.
Among children exposed to elevated maternal depression symptoms (MDS), recent studies have demonstrated reduced internalizing and externalizing problems for those who have attended formal childcare (i.e., center-based, family-based childcare). However, these studies did not consider whether childcare attendance is associated with benefits for the child only or also with reduced MDS. Using a four-wave longitudinal cross-lagged model, we evaluated whether formal childcare attendance was associated with MDS or child behavior problems and whether it moderated longitudinal associations between MDS and child behavior problems and between child behavior problems and MDS. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study and consisted of 908 biologically related mother–child dyads, followed from 5 months to 5 years. Attending formal childcare was not associated with MDS or child behavior problems but moderated the association between MDS at 3.5 years and child internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years as well as between girls’ externalizing problems at 3.5 years and MDS at 5 years. No other moderation of formal childcare was found. Findings suggest that attending formal childcare reduces the risks of behavior problems in the context of MDS but also the risk of MDS in the context of girls’ externalizing problems.
Determining the effects of light pollution on tropical bat communities is important for understanding community assembly rules in urban areas. Studies from temperate regions suggest that, among aerial insectivorous bats, fast-flying species that forage in the open are attracted to artificial lights, whereas slow-flying species that forage in cluttered environments avoid those lights. We measured aerial insectivore responses to light pollution in a tropical cloud forest to test this hypothesis. Bat echolocation was recorded at 20 pairs of light and dark sites in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Foraging activity was higher at artificially lighted sites than dark sites near the new moon, especially around blue-white fluorescent lighting. Most recorded bat species showed increased or unchanged activity in response to light, including some slow-flying and edge-foraging bats. This finding suggests that, contrary to the evaluated hypothesis, flight speed and foraging mode are not sufficient to determine bat responses to artificial lights in the tropics. Two bat species showed decreased activity at light sites, and a low species evenness was recorded around lights, particularly fluorescent lights, compared with dark sites. As in the temperate zone, light pollution in the tropics seems to concentrate certain bat species around human-inhabited areas, potentially shifting community structure.
A 15-month-old child underwent percutaneous expansion of a Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in the mitral position to accommodate growth after initial surgical implantation during infancy, but transiently decompensated after valvuloplasty owing to stent malformation. The Melody valve in the mitral position of small patients can be further expanded by percutaneous dilation, but there are a number of potential complications and technical improvements to consider.
Heritability of antisocial behaviour is estimated at approximately 50% and involves multiple genes.
To investigate the cumulative genetic effects of 116 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to 11 candidate serotonergic genes and antisocial behaviours, in adolescence and in early adulthood.
Participants were 410 male members of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children, a population-based cohort followed up prospectively from age 6 to age 23. The serotonergic genes were selected based on known physiological processes and prior associations with antisocial behaviours. Antisocial behaviours were self-reported and assessed by using semi-structured interviews in adolescence and in adulthood.
Cumulative, haplotype-based contributions of serotonergic genes conferring risk and protection for antisocial behaviours were detected by using multilocus genetic profile risk scores (MGPRSs) and multilocus genetic profile protection scores (MGPPSs). Cumulatively, haplotype-based MGPRSs and MGPPSs contributed to 9.6, 8.5 and 15.2% of the variance in general delinquency in adolescence, property/violent crimes in early adulthood and physical partner violence in early adulthood, respectively.
This study extends previous research by showing a cumulative effect of multiple haplotypes conferring risk and protection to antisocial behaviours in adolescence and early adulthood. The findings further support the relevance of concomitantly considering multiple serotonergic polymorphisms to better understand the genetic aetiology of antisocial behaviours. Future studies should investigate the interplay between risk and protective haplotype-based multilocus genetic profile scores with the environment.
Declaration of interest:
I.O.-M. holds a Canada Research Chair in the developmental origins of vulnerability and resilience.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Multijunction solar cells have proven to be capable of extremely high efficiencies by combining multiple semiconductor materials with bandgaps tuned to the solar spectrum. Reaching the optimum set of semiconductors often requires combining high-quality materials with different lattice constants into a single device, a challenge particularly suited for metamorphic epitaxy. In this article, we describe different approaches to metamorphic multijunction solar cells, including traditional upright metamorphic, state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic, and forward-looking multijunction designs on silicon. We also describe the underlying materials science of graded buffers that enables metamorphic subcells with low dislocation densities. Following nearly two decades of research, recent efforts have demonstrated high-quality lattice-mismatched multijunction solar cells with very little performance loss related to the mismatch, enabling solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies over 45%.
The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been shown to
moderate the impact of maltreatment on antisocial behaviour. Replication
efforts have, however, yielded inconsistent results.
To investigate whether the interaction between the MAOA
gene and violence is present across the full distribution of violence or
emerges at higher levels of exposure.
Participants were 327 male members of the Québec Longitudinal Study of
Kindergarten Children. Exposure to violence comprised retrospective
reports of mother's and father's maltreatment, sexual and physical abuse.
Conduct disorder and antisocial personality symptoms were assessed in
semi-structured interviews and partner violence, property-violent crimes
and arrest were self-reported.
Non-linear interactions between the MAOA gene and
violence were detected, suggesting that the genetic moderation may come
about once a certain level of violence is experienced.
Future studies should investigate the mechanisms translating substantial
violence exposure, which could, subsequently, trigger the expression of
genetically based differences in antisocial behaviour.
Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate of numerous crustacean species, including the economically important Atlantic snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. The parasite was cultured in vitro in modified Nephrops medium at 0°C and a partial characterization of the life stages was accomplished using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In haemolymph from heavily infected snow crabs two life stages were detected; amoeboid trophonts and sporonts. During in vitro cultivation, several Hematodinium sp. life stages were observed: trophonts, clump colonies, sporonts, arachnoid sporonts, sporoblasts and dinospores. Cultures initiated with sporonts progressed to motile dinospores; however, those initiated with amoeboid trophonts proliferated, but did not progress or formed schizont-like stages which were senescent artefacts. Plasmodial stages were associated with both trophonts and sporonts and could be differentiated by the presence of trichocysts on TEM. Macrodinospores were observed but not microdinospores; likely due to the low number of Hematodinium sp. cultures that progressed to the dinospore stage. No early life stages including motile filamentous trophonts or gorgonlocks were observed as previously noted in Hematodinium spp. from other crustacean hosts. All Hematodinium sp. life stages contained autofluorescent, membrane-bound electron dense granules that appeared to degranulate or be expelled from the cell during in vitro cultivation.
The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools.
The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states’ competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states’ disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state.
Data from BTG and CLASS were used.
BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used.
A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %.
These data suggest a concordance between states’ soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.