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Over the last two decades, Frequency Modulation (FM) radio has been established as the only form of sound broadcasting in Ghana. Radio is the most accessible of mass media. There are more than 40 operational radio stations in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Most stations are commercial, broadcasting in the local language (Asante-Twi). Many urban radio health slots discuss various diseases and their treatments mainly for the benefit of patients. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners who are able to pay for airtime dominate as ‘experts’ in most of these shows.
We identified an IEC gap regarding policies governing healthcare delivery, healthcare financing, training, ethics and research, and environmental issues. In June 2015, orthodox medical practitioners collaborated with a private, local, English-speaking radio station to produce and host a weekly health show whose content was aimed at holistically discussing health from the viewpoint of practitioners, clients, policy makers, administrators, and financiers in a simplified language for the general public, including healthcare trainees.
The show dubbed “Staying Alive” first aired on Tuesday, July 7, 2015, at 20:00 GMT and continues to air to date, appealing to a wide range of active listeners. “Staying Alive” to the best of our knowledge remains the only show with a holistic approach to health. Over the last 23 months, we have experienced challenges in sustaining sponsorship to fund the cost of production and airtime for the show, and the cost of effectively assessing the public health impact of the show. Orthodox medical practitioners can employ mass radio as an effective tool for advocacy, information dissemination, and education of clients or health trainees in low or middle-income urban settings through effective collaboration with media stations.
First aid, particularly bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is an important element in the chain of survival. However, little is known about what influences populations to undertake first aid/CPR training, update their training, and use of the training.
The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of people who have first aid/CPR training, those who have updated their training, and use of these skills.
As part of the 2011 state-wide, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of people over 18 years of age living in Queensland, Australia, stratified by gender and age group, three questions about first aid training, re-training, and skill uses were explored.
Of the 1,277 respondents, 73.2% reported having undertaken some first aid/CPR training and 39.5% of those respondents had used their first aid/CPR skills. The majority of respondents (56.7%) had not updated their first aid/CPR skills in the past three years, and an additional 2.5% had never updated their skills. People who did not progress beyond year 10 in school and those in lower income groups were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training. Males and people in lower income groups were less likely to have recently updated their first aid/CPR training. People with chronic health problems were in a unique demographic sub-group; they were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training but more likely to have administered first aid/CPR.
Training initiatives that target people on the basis of education level, income group, and the existence of chronic health problems might be one strategy for improving bystander CPR rates when cardiac arrest occurs in the home.
Franklin RC, Watt K, Aitken P, Brown LH, Leggat PA. Characteristics associated with first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and use in Queensland, Australia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):155–160
Measurements of a sample from ~580 m depth in the WAIS Divide (WDC06A) ice core reveal that bubbles are preferentially elongated in the basal plane of their parent grain, as expected if bubble shape preserves the record of dominant basal glide. This suggests that a method using bubbles as strain gauges could provide insights to grain-scale ice deformation. We introduce a technique using fabric and image analyses of paired thin and thick sections. Comparison of the crystallographic orientations of 148 grains and the shape orientations of 2377 intragrain bubbles reveals a strongly preferred elongation of bubbles in the grain basal planes (R2 = 0.96). Elongation magnitudes are consistent with a balance between ice flow deformation and diffusive restoration, with larger bubbles more elongated. Assuming bubbles record ice strain, grains with greater resolved stress on their basal planes from the far-field ice flow stresses show greater deformation, but with large variability suggesting that heterogeneity of the local stress field causes deformation even in unfavorably oriented grains. A correlation is also observed among bubble elongation, grain size, and bubble size, explaining a small but significant fraction of the variance ( P< 0.05), with implications for controls on ice deformation, as discussed here.
Earlier reports have summarized crop yield losses throughout various North American regions if weeds were left uncontrolled. Offered here is a report from the current WSSA Weed Loss Committee on potential yield losses due to weeds based on data collected from various regions of the United States and Canada. Dry bean yield loss estimates were made by comparing dry bean yield in the weedy control with plots that had >95% weed control from research studies conducted in dry bean growing regions of the United States and Canada over a 10-year period (2007 to 2016). Results from these field studies showed that dry bean growers in Idaho, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Ontario, and Manitoba would potentially lose an average of 50%, 31%, 36%, 59%, 94%, 31%, 71%, 56%, and 71% of their dry bean yield, respectively. This equates to a monetary loss of US $36, 40, 6, 56, 421, 2, 18, 44, and 44 million, respectively, if the best agronomic practices are used without any weed management tactics. Based on 2016 census data, at an average yield loss of 71.4% for North America due to uncontrolled weeds, dry bean production in the United States and Canada would be reduced by 941,000,000 and 184,000,000 kg, valued at approximately US $622 and US $100 million, respectively. This study documents the dramatic yield and monetary losses in dry beans due to weed interference and the importance of continued funding for weed management research to minimize dry bean yield losses.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer-assisted “drill-and-strategy” cognitive remediation (CR) for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia on cognition, everyday self-efficacy, and independent living skills. Methods: Fifty-six people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized into CR or computer game (CG) playing (control), and offered twenty 1-hr individual sessions in a group setting over 10 weeks. Measures of cognition, psychopathology, self-efficacy, quality of life, and independent living skills were conducted at baseline, end-group and 3 months following intervention completion. Results: Forty-three participants completed at least 10 sessions and the end-group assessment. Linear mixed-effect analyses among completers demonstrated a significant interaction effect for global cognition favoring CR (p=.028). CR-related cognitive improvement was sustained at 3-months follow-up. At end-group, 17 (77%) CR completers showed a reliable improvement in at least one cognitive domain. A significant time effect was evident for self-efficacy (p=.028) with both groups improving over time, but no significant interaction effect was observed. No significant effects were found for other study outcomes, including the functional measure. Conclusions: Computer-assisted drill-and-strategy CR in schizophrenia improved cognitive test performance, while participation in both CR and CG playing promoted enhancements in everyday self-efficacy. Changes in independent living skills did not appear to result from CR, however. Adjunctive psychosocial rehabilitation is likely necessary for improvements in real-world community functioning to be achieved. (JINS, 2018, 24, 549–562)
The WAIS (West Antarctic Ice Sheet) Divide deep ice core was recently completed to a total depth of 3405 m, ending 50 m above the bed. Investigation of the visual stratigraphy and grain characteristics indicates that the ice column at the drilling location is undisturbed by any large-scale overturning or discontinuity. The climate record developed from this core is therefore likely to be continuous and robust. Measured grain-growth rates, recrystallization characteristics, and grain-size response at climate transitions fit within current understanding. Significant impurity control on grain size is indicated from correlation analysis between impurity loading and grain size. Bubble-number densities and bubble sizes and shapes are presented through the full extent of the bubbly ice. Where bubble elongation is observed, the direction of elongation is preferentially parallel to the trace of the basal (0001) plane. Preferred crystallographic orientation of grains is present in the shallowest samples measured, and increases with depth, progressing to a vertical-girdle pattern that tightens to a vertical single-maximum fabric. This single-maximum fabric switches into multiple maxima as the grain size increases rapidly in the deepest, warmest ice. A strong dependence of the fabric on the impurity-mediated grain size is apparent in the deepest samples.
Imaging bundles provide a convenient way to translate a spatially coherent image, yet conventional imaging bundles made from silica fibre optics typically remain expensive with large losses due to poor filling factors (~40%). We present the characterisation of a novel polymer imaging bundle made from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that is considerably cheaper and a better alternative to silica imaging bundles over short distances (~1 m; from the middle to the edge of a telescope’s focal plane). The large increase in filling factor (92% for the polymer imaging bundle) outweighs the large increase in optical attenuation from using PMMA (1 dB/m) instead of silica (10−3 dB/m). We present and discuss current and possible future multi-object applications of the polymer imaging bundle in the context of astronomical instrumentation including: field acquisition, guiding, wavefront sensing, narrow-band imaging, aperture masking, and speckle imaging. The use of PMMA limits its use in low-light applications (e.g., imaging of galaxies); however, it is possible to fabricate polymer imaging bundles from a range of polymers that are better suited to the desired science.
The stability of a low Reynolds number flow on an inclined plane is investigated with respect to modelling the initiation of transverse wave-like ridges which commonly occur on the surfaces of rock-glacier forms. In accordance with field observations indicating the presence of stratification in rock glaciers, two models of rock-glacier structure are considered, each stratified and possessing a lower layer which is treated as a Newtonian fluid. An upper, less compliant layer is treated, alternatively, as a Newtonian fluid of viscosity greater than that of the lower layer, or as an elastic solid under longitudinal compression induced by a decrease in the slope of the underlying incline. A linear stability analysis is used to examine the behaviour of each of the proposed models, and both are found to generate instabilities at wavelengths comparable to those associated with transverse surficial ridges on rock glaciers. The growth rates of a flow disturbance predicted by the viscous-stratified model appear to be too slow to account fully for the development of wave forms of finite amplitude, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in the amplification of an initial disturbance. The results of the stability analysis of the elastic lamina model indicate that finite surficial ridges may develop on rock glaciers as a product of a buckling instability in the surface region if there is a decrease in the slope of the underlying incline. Both of the analyses illustrate that transverse ridges can occur on the surface of a rock glacier in the absence of any variations in debris supply to the system. The results further imply that the use of these features in the paleoreconstruction of Holocene climatic conditions must entail an assessment of the relative roles of external climatically driven forcing versus internal Theologically derived instability.
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
Archaeologists commonly use the onset of the construction of large burial monuments as a material indicator of a fundamental shift in authority in prehistoric human societies during the Holocene. High-quality direct evidence of this transition is rare. We report new interdisciplinary research at the archaeological site of Nan Madol that allows us to specify where and when people began to construct monumental architecture in the remote islands of the Pacific. Nan Madol is an ancient administrative and mortuary center and the former capital of the island of Pohnpei. It was constructed over 83 ha of lagoon with artificial islets and other architecture built using columnar basalt and coral. We employed geochemical sourcing of basalt used as architectural stone and high-precision uranium-thorium series dates (230Th/U) on coral from the tomb of the first chief of the entire island to identify the beginning of monument building at Nan Madol in AD 1180-1200. Over the next several centuries (AD 1300-1600) monument building began on other islands across Oceania. Future research should be aimed at resolving the causes of these social transformations through higher quality data on monument building.
We present two isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) sequences of a twin-stalagmite from Zhuliuping Cave, southwestern China, with 230Th dates from 14.6 to 4.6 ka. The stalagmite δ18O record characterizes orbital- to decadal-scale variability of Asian summer monsoon (ASM) intensity, with the Holocene optimum period (HOP) between 9.8 and 6.8 ka BP which is reinforced by its co-varying δ13C data. The large multi-decadal scale amplitude of the cave δ18O indicates its high sensitivity to climate change. Four centennial-scale weak ASM events during the early Holocene are centered at 11.2, 10.8, 9.1 and 8.2 ka. They can be correlated to cold periods in the northern high latitudes, possibly resulting from rapid dynamics of atmospheric circulation associated with North Atlantic cooling. The 8.2 ka event has an amplitude more than two-thirds that of the Younger Dryas (YD), and is significantly stronger than other cave records in the Asia monsoon region, likely indicating a more severe dry climate condition at the cave site. At the end of the YD event, the δ13C record lags the δ18O record by 300–500 yr, suggesting a multi-centennial slow response of vegetation and soil processes to monsoon enhancement.
More students are beginning their college careers at community colleges before completing degrees at four-year institutions. As enrollments swell at these two-year institutions, issues surrounding transfer and articulation agreements are increasingly important, and two- and four-year institutions must work together on the recruitment, retention, and transition of political science majors. Central to this collaboration is the curriculum. Building on conclusions from the 2011 Leadership Collaborative Core Curriculum and General Education track regarding a common curriculum in the discipline, this article examines the political science curriculum using data from 47 two-year colleges with separate political science departments. We examined similarities and differences among these programs and found sufficient commonality in curriculum to allow students to transfer credits to four-year institutions. The article also offers community colleges an indication of common curricular features and informs the wider profession about community college curriculum design.
A three-dimensional model of the [O III] λ5007 line-emitting gas in the Crab Nebula has been developed from imaging spectroscopy taken with the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager mounted on the McGraw-Hill 1.3m telescope of Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory. Several interesting morphological features revealed in three-dimensional isophotal displays are discussed.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.