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This study describes psychometric properties of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) executive function measures in an adult sample. The NIHTB-CB was designed for use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials for ages 3 to 85. A total of 268 self-described healthy adults were recruited at four university-based sites, using stratified sampling guidelines to target demographic variability for age (20–85 years), gender, education and ethnicity. The NIHTB-CB contains two computer-based instruments assessing executive function: the Dimensional Change Card Sort (a measure of cognitive flexibility) and a flanker task (a measure of inhibitory control and selective attention). Participants completed the NIHTB-CB, corresponding gold standard convergent and discriminant measures, and sociodemographic questionnaires. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. Results reveal excellent sensitivity to age-related changes during adulthood, excellent test–retest reliability, and adequate to good convergent and discriminant validity. The NIH Toolbox EF measures can be used effectively in epidemiologic and clinical studies. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)
This study introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (Gershon, Wagster et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first study in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test–retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One study in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
Over the past century, the Santa Cruz Formation of coastal Argentina (late Early
Miocene) has yielded a remarkable collection of platyrrhine primates. With few
notable exceptions, most of the specimens have been included in Homunculus patagonicus Ameghino, 1891, a stem
platyrrhine. Homunculus patagonicus was
approximately 1.5 to 2.5 kg in body mass, about the size of a living saki monkey
(Pithecia) or a female Cebus. Molar structure indicates that the diet
consisted of a mixture of fruit and leaves. A deep jaw, large postcanine tooth
roots, large postglenoid processes and moderately large chewing muscle
attachments (i.e. massive zygomatic arches, sculpted temporalis origins) suggest
that physically resistant foods were key components of the diet. Heavy tooth
wear suggests large amounts of ingested silica or exogenous abrasives. Incisor
morphology suggests that exudate harvesting may have been part of the behavioral
repertoire, although not a specialization. The canines were small, providing no
evidence of sclerocarpic foraging. Canines were sexually dimorphic, suggesting
that the taxon experienced some intrasexual competition rather than being
solitary or pair-bonded. Brain size was small and the frontal cortical region
was proportionately small. From the small size and structure of the orbits, the
structure of the organ of hearing, the reduced olfactory fossae and the
relatively large infraorbital foramina, we infer that Homunculus was probably diurnal, with acute vision and hearing,
but with a poor sense of smell and little reliance on tactile vibrissae.
Homunculus was an above-branch arboreal
quadruped with leaping abilities. The semicircular canals show evidence of
considerable agility, reinforcing the inference of leaping behavior. The overall
locomotor repertoire is not unlike that of the forest-dwelling extant saki
monkey Pithecia. Considered together, the
mosaic of dietary and locomotor morphology in Homunculus suggests that Homunculus inhabited an environment – as compared with
earlier Colhuehuapian and Pinturan primate habitats – shifting towards
greater seasonality in patchy forests near river courses.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
Embracing disciplinary approaches ranging from the archaeological to the historical, the sociological to the literary, this collection offers new insights into key texts and interpretive problems in the history of England and the continent between the eighth and thirteenth centuries. Topics range from Bede's use and revision of the anonymous Life of St Cuthbert and the redeployment of patristic texts in later continental and Anglo-Saxon ascetic and hagiographical texts, to Robert Curthose's interaction with the Norman episcopate and the revival of Roman legal studies, to the dynamics of aristocratic friendship in the Anglo-Norman realm, and much more. The volume also includes two methodologically rich studies of vital aspects of the historical landscape of medieval England: rivers and forests.
William North teaches in the Department of History, Carleton College.
Contributors: Richard Allen, Uta-Renate Blumenthal, Ruth Harwood Cline, Thomas Cramer, Mark Gardiner, C. Stephen Jaeger, David A.E. Pelteret, Sally Shockro, Rebecca Slitt, Timothy Smit