Studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 over seven environments evaluating rice root growth inhibition (RGI) and foliar injury from penoxsulam at 30 and 60 g ai/ha and bispyribac-sodium at 30 g ai/ha applied to four- to five-leaf rice at three flood timings, 1, 7, and 14 d after herbicide treatment (DAT), for five rice cultivars, ‘Bengal’, ‘Cypress’, ‘Wells’, ‘Cocodrie’, and ‘XP712’. Flooding at 1 and 7 DAT resulted in greater RGI compared with flood at 14 DAT when evaluated 1 wk after flood (WAF). By 2 WAF, RGI was greater with flooding at 1 DAT compared with flooding at 7 DAT for cultivars Bengal, Cypress, and Wells. Analyzing flood timing 1 DAT, bispyribac-sodium reduced root growth of Bengal and Cypress compared with penoxsulam at 30 g/ha at 1 week after treatment (WAT). At 2 WAT, RGI for Cocodrie was higher following penoxsulam at 60 g/ha when compared with bispyribac-sodium. By 3 WAT, RGI was higher following penoxsulam at 60 g/ha when compared with penoxsulam at 30 g/ha for Cocodrie and greater than bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam at 30 g/ha for Cypress. Foliar injury following penoxsulam at both rates was less than injury following bispyribac-sodium for all cultivars except XP712 at 1 WAT. XP712 resulted in < 5% RGI and < 6% foliar injury at each evaluation. Rice grain yield was not affected by herbicide treatment for any cultivar compared with the standard treatment of propanil plus quinclorac.