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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.
Dermaptera (earwigs) are described from the Triassic of Australia and England, and from the Jurassic and Cretaceous of England. Phanerogramma heeri (Giebel) is transferred from Coleoptera and it and Brevicula gradus Whalley are re-described. Seven new taxa are named based on tegmina: Phanerogramma australis sp. nov. and P. dunstani sp. nov. from the Late Triassic of Australia; P. gouldsbroughi sp. nov. from the Triassic/Jurassic of England; Brevicula maculata sp. nov. and Trivenapteron moorei gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Jurassic of England; and Dimapteron corami gen et sp. nov. and Valdopteron woodi gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of England. Phanerogramma, Dimapteron and Valdopteron are tentatively placed in the family Dermapteridae, and Trivenapteron is incertae sedis. Most of the specimens of Phanerogramma heeri are from the Brodie Collection and labelled ‘Lower Lias'; however, some were collected from the underlying Penarth Group, thus this species spans the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. The palaeobiogeography of the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of England is discussed.
In Romans 13:5, St. Paul famously announced that Christians must obey law not only for fear of punishment, but also “for conscience sake.” Early modern Protestants and Catholics agreed that violations of laws that bound conscience, if unrepented, threatened damnation. But not all law obligated conscience. Natural law typically did. So did Jesus's injunctions and God's moral law revealed in the Old Testament, but not His judicial law governing civic affairs or His ceremonial law regulating Jewish religious observance. Human laws about things indifferent, matters neither commanded nor forbidden in scripture and nature, presented the most complicated case. Disobedience to only certain classes of human laws—but not all—imperiled the soul. Catholics and Protestants fiercely debated how to distinguish rulers’ ordinances that bound conscience from those that did not. This article explores the principles that animated the dispute and the methods used for linking human law to the fate of the soul or challenging that connection.
We revisit the problem of why stars become red giants. We modify the physics of a standard stellar evolution code in order to determine what does and what does not contribute to a star becoming a red giant. In particular, we have run tests to try to separate the effects of changes in the mean molecular weight and in the energy generation. The implications for why stars become red giants are discussed. We find that while a change in the mean molecular weight is necessary (but not sufficient) for a 1-M⊙ star to become a red giant, this is not the case in a star of 5 M⊙. It therefore seems that there may be more than one way to make a giant.
Using USDA's Agricultural Resource Management Survey data, factors leading to the adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems by U.S. beef cow-calf producers are analyzed. Binary logit regression models are used to determine impacts of vertical integration; region of the U.S.; farm size, diversification, and tenure; and demographics on adoption decisions. Significant differences were found in adoption rates by region of the U.S., degree of vertical integration, and size of operation, suggesting the presence of economies of size and vertical economies of scope. Results also indicate high degrees of complementarity among technologies, management practices, and production systems.
Background: There is considerable debate about the prevalence of depression in old age. Epidemiological surveys and clinical studies indicate mixed evidence for the association between depression and increasing age. We examined the prevalence of probable depression in the middle aged to the oldest old in a project designed specifically to investigate the aging process.
Methods: Community-living participants were drawn from several Australian longitudinal studies of aging that contributed to the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Different depression scales from the contributing studies were harmonized to create a binary variable that reflected “probable depression” based on existing cut-points for each harmonized scale. Weighted prevalence was benchmarked to the Australian population which could be compared with findings from the 1997 and 2007 National Surveys of Mental Health and Well-Being (NSMHWB).
Results: In the DYNOPTA project, females were more likely to report probable depression. This was consistent across age levels. Both NSMHWB surveys and DYNOPTA did not report a decline in the likelihood of reporting probable depression for the oldest old in comparison with mid-life.
Conclusions: Inconsistency in the reports of late-life depression prevalence in previous epidemiological studies may be explained by either the exclusion and/or limited sampling of the oldest old. DYNOPTA addresses these limitations and the results indicated no change in the likelihood of reporting depression with increasing age. Further research should extend these findings to examine within-person change in a longitudinal context and control for health covariates.
The amygdala has a long-recognized role in emotion, and a growing body of work demonstrates that it plays an important part in the regulation of arousal state. Primary findings are that the amygdala, especially its central nucleus, is a strong regulator of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and related phenomena, though a smaller body of research indicates a role for the amygdala in regulating non-REM (NREM). Considering its vital place in the limbic circuitry that controls emotion, it is likely that the amygdala mediates fear- and stress-induced alterations in sleep, and investigations in animals have begun to provide confirmatory evidence. In particular, GABAergic regulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala appears to play a significant role in stress-induced reductions in REM. In humans, neuroimaging studies suggest that the pathophysiological mechanisms of narcolepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), two central nervous system disorders with a prominent emotional component and a demonstrated abnormality of REM, involve an amygdalar-mediated reorganization of fundamental REM systems.