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The vision for dementia-friendly communities is challenged by limited public awareness and stigma about dementia. The study aim was to elicit stakeholder priorities for the message content of an education program to improve dementia awareness among youth; specifically, what do children need to know about dementia?
A qualitative inquiry using interviews and focus groups was used. Purposive sampling achieved maximum variation in dementia experience and participant characteristics. Focus groups with Scouts in the community aged 9–12 years old (n = 22) used innovative techniques to explore children's attitudes towards people with dementia. Participants with personal experience of dementia were five people with early-stage dementia; 12 adult primary carers; four non-primary carers; and six grandchildren of a person with dementia. They were asked what is important for children to understand about dementia and what attitudes they may like an education program to confer. Content analysis was performed using NVivo10.
Strong themes to emerge were that children need to know the whole truth about dementia; that individuals with dementia are “still people,” that it is “not the fault” of the person with dementia; and that dementia is different and typically unpredictable for everyone. Discussions also indicated a need to educate children about ways to relate to a person with dementia, and to appreciate “positives” within a relationship.
Children are our future citizens. Developing an education program for children with this message content may be fundamental to de-stigmatizing dementia and laying the foundation to dementia-friendly communities.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
The Nakhla meteorite represents basaltic rock from the martian upper crust, with reduced carbon indicative of the ingress of carbonaceous fluids. Study of a terrestrial analogue basalt with reduced carbon from the Ordovician of Northern Ireland shows that remote analysis could detect the carbon using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of gases released by crushing detects methane-rich fluids in the basalt and especially in cross-cutting carbon-bearing veinlets. The results suggest that automated analysis on Mars could detect the reduced carbon, which may be derived from magmatic and/or meteoritic infall sources.
The survival strategies of extremophilic organisms in terrestrially stressed locations and habitats are critically dependent on the production of protective chemicals in response to desiccation, low wavelength radiation insolation, temperature and the availability of nutrients. The adaptation of life to these harsh prevailing conditions involves the control of the substratal geology; the interaction between the rock and the organisms is critical and the biological modification of the geological matrix plays a very significant role in the overall survival strategy. Identification of these biological and biogeological chemical molecular signatures in the geological record is necessary for the recognition of the presence of extinct or extant life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial scenarios. Raman spectroscopic techniques have been identified as valuable instrumentation for the detection of life extra-terrestrially because of the use of non-invasive laser-based excitation of organic and inorganic molecules, and molecular ions with high discrimination characteristics; the interactions effected between biological organisms and their environments are detectable through the molecular entities produced at the interfaces, for which the vibrational spectroscopic band signatures are unique. A very important attribute of Raman spectroscopy is the acquisition of molecular experimental data non-destructively without the need for chemical or mechanical pre-treatment of the specimen; this has been a major factor in the proposal for the adoption of Raman instrumentation on robotic landers and rovers for planetary exploration, particularly for the forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ExoMars mission. In this paper, the merits of using Raman spectroscopy for the recognition of key molecular biosignatures from several terrestrial extremophile specimens will be illustrated. The data and specimens used in this presentation have been acquired from Arctic and Antarctic cold deserts and a meteorite crater, from which it will be possible to assess spectral data relevant for the detection of extra-terrestrial extremophilic life signatures.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces mammary milk fat synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Our objective was to determine the effects of lipid-encapsulated CLA (LE-CLA) supplementation on milk production, reproductive performance and metabolic responses in lactating dairy cows fed a grass silage-based diet. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian cows (32 primiparous and 40 multiparous) were used in a completely randomized block design. Cows received either 80 g of LE-CLA daily or 60 g of calcium salts of palm fatty acids daily (control) from parturition until 60 days in milk. LE-CLA contained a 50:50 mix of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA, resulting in a daily intake of 6 g of each isomer. Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and blood samples were collected 3-times a week. Blood samples were analysed for circulating concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Progesterone was measured in blood samples collected after the first post-partum insemination. Ovarian ultrasound examinations commenced at 8–10 d post partum and were carried out 3-times a week until first ovulation. LE-CLA treatment resulted in decreased milk fat concentration, with consequent improvements in energy balance and body condition score (BCS). The peak concentration of NEFA in blood was reduced by LE-CLA, but circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-I, BHBA and progesterone were not affected. There was no effect of LE-CLA supplementation on the post-partum interval to first ovulation. Services per conception tended to be reduced. The reduction in milk energy output and improvement in energy status and BCS in LE-CLA-supplemented cows provides a strong rationale for further studies with greater cow numbers to test effects on reproductive performance.
Ultrafast picosecond laser pulses of wavelength of 1064nm have allowed the surface modification of anodised aluminium plate for potential industrial application. The interaction of the laser with the substrate created a hydrophilic surface, giving a contact angle of less than 10 degrees. On examination under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it was observed that these surfaces have an interesting ‘lotus-leaf’ like structure. It has been found that these laser processed hydrophilic surfaces revert with time. The potential for application in the printing industry is strong due to the reusability and sustainability of the process materials; initial trials confirm this. This technology would offer extra advantages as a non-chemical process without the need for developer, thereby reducing the overall cost and time of printing.
Dietary microparticles are non-biological, bacterial-sized particles. Endogenous sources are derived from intestinal Ca and phosphate secretion. Exogenous sources are mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2) and mixed silicates (Psil); they are resistant to degradation and accumulate in human Peyer's patch macrophages and there is some evidence that they exacerbate inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether their intake differs between those with and without CD has not been studied. We aimed to identify dietary microparticle sources and intakes in subjects with and without CD. Patients with inactive CD and matched general practice-based controls (ninety-one per group) completed 7d food diaries. Intake data for dietary fibre and sucrose were compared as positive controls. All foods, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes were examined for microparticle content, and intakes of Ca and exogenous microparticles were compared between the two groups. Dietary intakes were significantly different between cases and controls for dietary fibre (12 (SD 5) v. 14 (sd 5) g/d; P=0.001) and sucrose (52 (sd 27) v. 45 (sd 18) g/d; P=0·04) but not for Ca. Estimated median TiO2 and Psil intakes (2·5 and 35mg/individual per d respectively, totalling 1012–1013 microparticles/individual per d) were broadly similar to per capita estimates and while there was wide variation in intakes between individuals there was no significant difference between subjects with CD and controls. Hence, if exposure to microparticles is associated with the inflammation of CD, then the present study rules out excess intake as the problem. Nonetheless, microparticle-containing foods have now been identified which allows a low-microparticle diet to be further assessed in CD.
To describe an outbreak of serious nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia infections occurring after transrectal prostate biopsy associated with ultrasound gel intrinsically contaminated with paraben-degrading microorganisms.
A retrospective chart review prompted by a blood culture isolate of B, cepacia. Identification of microorganisms in ultrasound gel in two Canadian centers and characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and assays for paraben degradation.
Two Canadian university-affiliated, tertiary-care centers in Newfoundland and Alberta.
Six serious B. cepacia infections were identified at the two centers. Isolates of B. cepacia recovered from the blood of patients from both centers and the ultrasound gel used during the procedures were identical, confirming intrinsic contamination. Strains of Enterobacter cloacae isolated from ultrasound gel at the two centers were also identical. The ability to degrade parabens was proven for both B. cepacia and E. cloacae strains recovered from the ultrasound gel.
Ultrasound gel is a potential source of infection. Contamination occurs at the time of manufacture, with organisms that degrade parabens, which are commonly used as stabilizing agents. There are far-reaching implications for the infection control community.
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often experience Fe deficiency (ID) and frequently alter their diet to relieve abdominal symptoms. The present study set out to assess whether patients with CD have dietary habits that lead to low Fe intakes and/or reduced bioavailable Fe compared with control subjects. Patients with asymptomatic CD were matched to controls (n 91/group). Dietary intakes of Fe and contributions from different food groups were compared using a 7 d food diary. Promoters and inhibitors of non-haem Fe absorption were investigated and a recently published algorithm was applied to assess bioavailable Fe. Fewer patients than controls met the reference nutrient intake for Fe (32 % CD patients v. 42 % controls). Overall, patients had significantly lower mean Fe intakes (by 2·3 mg/d) and Fe density (by 0·26 mg/MJ (1·1 mg/1000 kcal)) compared with controls (both P<0·001). Differences were mainly due to a preference among CD patients for low-fibre non-Fe fortified cereals, particularly breakfast cereals. In particular, control subjects had higher Fe intakes than matched CD subjects for men (P<0·001) and women less than 50 years (P=0·03). Intakes of both ascorbic acid (P<0·001) and phytic acid (P<0·01), but not animal tissue (P=1·0), were lower in patients with CD, but these had no overall effect on the predicted percentage of bioavailable Fe. Thus total bioavailable Fe was reduced in patients with CD due to lower intakes (P<0·01). Dietary Fe intakes are low in CD patients, which may contribute to an increased risk of ID and anaemia. Changing dietary advice may compromise perceived symptoms of the disease so the need for Fe supplementation should be carefully considered.
An iodine teat skin disinfectant tested in lactating cows over a range of concentrations, 100 to 10 000 mg available iodine/1 (mg avI/l) was found bactericidally effective against Staphylococcus aureus when containing 1000 mg avI/l or greater. Against Streptococcus dysgalactiae 5000 mg avI/l or greater was bactericidally effective.
The addition of glycerine to a disinfectant containing 5000 or 1000 mg avI/l at levels of 225 ml/1 and 105 ml/1, respectively, resulted in a reduction in bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectant. Emulsified paraffin added at concentrations of between 50 and 500 ml/1 had no effect on the efficacy of the 5000 mg avI/l disinfectant, but the addition of 200 ml/1 emulsified paraffin to a 1000 mg avI/l disinfectant significantly reduced its efficiency. Iodine disinfectants containing emulsified paraffin phase separated rapidly during storage, and the bactericidal efficacy of the phases differed significantly and diminished with time.
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