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Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of boulders on cryoplanation terrace treads and associated bedrock cliff faces revealed Holocene ages ranging from 0 ± 825 to 8890 ± 1185 yr. The cliffs were significantly younger than the inner treads, which tended to be younger than the outer treads. Radiocarbon dates from the regolith of 3854 to 4821 cal yr BP (2σ range) indicated maximum rates of cliff recession of ~0.1 mm/yr, which suggests the onset of terrace formation before the last glacial maximum. Age, angularity, and size of clasts, together with planation across bedrock structures and the seepage of groundwater from the cliff foot, all support a process-based conceptual model of cryoplanation terrace development in which frost weathering leads to parallel cliff recession and, hence, terrace extension. The availability of groundwater during autumn freezeback is viewed as critical for frost wedging and/or the growth of segregation ice during prolonged winter frost penetration. Permafrost promotes cryoplanation by providing an impermeable frost table beneath the active layer, focusing groundwater flow, and supplying water for sediment transport by solifluction across the tread. Snow beds are considered an effect rather than a cause of cryoplanation terraces, and cryoplanation is seen as distinct from nivation.
Communication deviance (CD) reflects features of the content or manner of a person's speech that may confuse the listener and inhibit the establishment of a shared focus of attention. The construct was developed in the context of the study of familial risks for psychosis based on hypotheses regarding its effects during childhood. It is not known whether parental CD is associated with nonverbal parental behaviors that may be important in early development. This study explored the association between CD in a cohort of mothers (n = 287) at 32 weeks gestation and maternal sensitivity with infants at 29 weeks in a standard play procedure. Maternal CD predicted lower overall maternal sensitivity (B = –.385; p < .001), and the effect was somewhat greater for sensitivity to infant distress (B = –.514; p < .001) than for sensitivity to nondistress (B = –.311; p < .01). After controlling for maternal age, IQ and depression, and for socioeconomic deprivation, the associations with overall sensitivity and sensitivity to distress remained significant. The findings provide new pointers to intergenerational transmission of vulnerability involving processes implicated in both verbal and nonverbal parental behaviors.
The goal of the present study was to use a methodology that accurately and reliably describes the availability, price and quality of healthy foods at both the store and community levels using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S), to propose a spatial methodology for integrating these store and community data into measures for defining objective food access.
Two hundred and sixty-five retail food stores in and within 2 miles (3·2 km) of Flint, Michigan, USA, were mapped using ArcGIS mapping software.
A survey based on the validated NEMS-S was conducted at each retail food store. Scores were assigned to each store based on a modified version of the NEMS-S scoring system and linked to the mapped locations of stores. Neighbourhood characteristics (race and socio-economic distress) were appended to each store. Finally, spatial and kernel density analyses were run on the mapped store scores to obtain healthy food density metrics.
Regression analyses revealed that neighbourhoods with higher socio-economic distress had significantly lower dairy sub-scores compared with their lower-distress counterparts (β coefficient=−1·3; P=0·04). Additionally, supermarkets were present only in neighbourhoods with <60 % African-American population and low socio-economic distress. Two areas in Flint had an overall NEMS-S score of 0.
By identifying areas with poor access to healthy foods via a validated metric, this research can be used help local government and organizations target interventions to high-need areas. Furthermore, the methodology used for the survey and the mapping exercise can be replicated in other cities to provide comparable results.
Accurate pulse arrival times have been measured for NP 0532 during the period 15 December 1969 to 3 May 1970, and have been fitted to simple models of the pulsar braking mechanism. A good fit could not be obtained to all the data at once, because of deviations on a time scale of several days. However it was possible to divide the observing period into four shorter intervals in such a way that the data within each deviated only slightly from smoothly varying functions. The difference in the parameters of these four functions may indicate sudden events in the pulsar producing changes of order of 1 part in 109 in the pulsar frequency and 4 parts in 105 in the rate of change of frequency. In each case the difference in frequency from one interval to the next implies a slowdown of the pulsar.
We found that the average value of the ‘braking parameter’ n in the equation dE/dt = -Aωn was 3.63, but dividing the data into shorter intervals gave values between 0 and 5. We found no changes in the mean shape of the pulses, or the phase of the interpulse relative to the main pulse.
This study examines the interplay between individual and social–developmental factors in the development of positive functioning, substance use problems, and mental health problems. This interplay is nested within positive and negative developmental cascades that span childhood, adolescence, the transition to adulthood, and adulthood. Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse community sample of 808 participants interviewed 12 times from ages 10 to 33. Path modeling showed short- and long-term cascading effects of positive social environments, family history of depression, and substance-using social environments throughout development. Positive family social environments set a template for future partner social environment interaction and had positive influences on proximal individual functioning, both in the next developmental period and long term. Family history of depression adversely affected mental health functioning throughout adulthood. Family substance use began a cascade of substance-specific social environments across development, which was the pathway through which increasing severity of substance use problems flowed. The model also indicated that adolescent, but not adult, individual functioning influenced selection into positive social environments, and significant cross-domain effects were found in which substance-using social environments affected subsequent mental health.
Studies have demonstrated that the effects of two well-known predictors of adolescent substance use, family monitoring and antisocial peers, are not static but change over the course of adolescence. Moreover, these effects may differ for different groups of youth. The current study uses time-varying effect modeling to examine the changes in the association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use from ages 11 to 19, and to compare these associations by gender and levels of behavioral disinhibition. Data are drawn from the Raising Healthy Children study, a longitudinal panel of 1,040 youth. The strength of association between family monitoring and antisocial peers and marijuana use was mostly steady over adolescence, and was greater for girls than for boys. Differences in the strength of the association were also evident by levels of behavioral disinhibition: youth with lower levels of disinhibition were more susceptible to the influence of parents and peers. Stronger influence of family monitoring on girls and less disinhibited youth was most evident in middle adolescence, whereas the stronger effect of antisocial peers was significant during middle and late adolescence. Implications for the timing and targeting of marijuana preventive interventions are discussed.
This paper is an interim report of our inferences about the hydrostatic structure of the Sun, following the first report of the GONG team in Science (Gough et al., 1996). That work confirms that the spherically averaged structure of the Sun is more or less in agreement with current standard solar models. However, there remain some significant deviations which we regard as important clues to the existence of dynamical phenomena which are not taken into account in standard solar modelling.
IAU Commission 40 for Radio Astronomy (hereafter C40) brought together scientists and engineers who carry out observational and theoretical research in radio astronomy and who develop and operate the ground and space-based radio astronomy facilities and instrumentation. As of June 2015, the Commission had approximately 1,100 members from 49 countries, corresponding to nearly 10 per cent of the total IAU membership.
We investigate the mechanics of a nano logic gate, comprising a metallofullerene which is located inside a square-shaped single-walled carbon nanotorus involving non-metallic, single-walled carbon nanotubes with perfect nanotoroidal corners. These are highly novel and speculative nanodevices whose construction, no doubt, involves many technical challenges. The energy for the system is obtained from the 6–12 Lennard-Jones potential with the continuous approximation. Our approach shows that there is not much difference between the energy when the metallofullerene is located in the tubes compared to when it is at the corners, and therefore the metallofullerene may be controlled by a small voltage. By applying two voltage inputs to produce external electric fields, one for the left–right motion and the other for the top–bottom motion, the metallofullerene can be moved to one of the four corners. Assuming that at the four corners there are charge detectors, the proposed device can be designed as a logic gate with different signals corresponding to particular gates.
Development of a numerical score to measure the microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens (spectrum score) and method to identify antibiotic de-escalation events based on application of the score.
Web-based modified Delphi method.
Physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewards practicing in the United States recruited through infectious diseases–focused listservs.
Three Delphi rounds investigated: organisms and antibiotics to include in the spectrum score, operationalization of rules for the score, and de-escalation measurement. A 4-point ordinal scale was used to score antibiotic susceptibility for organism-antibiotic domain pairs. Antibiotic regimen scores, which represented combined activity of antibiotics in a regimen across all organism domains, were used to compare antibiotic spectrum administered early (day 2) and later (day 4) in therapy. Changes in spectrum score were calculated and compared with Delphi participants’ judgments on de-escalation with 20 antibiotic regimen vignettes and with non-Delphi steward judgments on de-escalation of 300 pneumonia regimen vignettes. Method sensitivity and specificity to predict expert de-escalation status were calculated.
Twenty-four participants completed all Delphi rounds. Expert support for concepts utilized in metric development was identified. For vignettes presented in the Delphi, the sign of change in score correctly classified de-escalation in all vignettes except those involving substitution of oral antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of the method to identify de-escalation events as judged by non-Delphi stewards were 86.3% and 96.0%, respectively.
Identification of de-escalation events based on an algorithm that measures microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens generally agreed with steward judgments of de-escalation status.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1103-1113
In stepped care models patients typically start with a low-intensity evidence-based treatment. Progress is monitored systematically and those patients who do not respond adequately step up to a subsequent treatment of higher intensity. Despite the fact that many guidelines have endorsed this stepped care principle it is not clear if stepped care really delivers similar or better patient outcomes against lower costs compared with other systems. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized trials on stepped care for depression.
We carried out a comprehensive literature search. Selection of studies, evaluation of study quality and extraction of data were performed independently by two authors.
A total of 14 studies were included and 10 were used in the meta-analyses (4580 patients). All studies used screening to identify possible patients and care as usual as a comparator. Study quality was relatively high. Stepped care had a moderate effect on depression (pooled 6-month between-group effect size Cohen's d was 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.20–0.48). The stepped care interventions varied greatly in number and duration of treatment steps, treatments offered, professionals involved, and criteria to step up.
There is currently only limited evidence to suggest that stepped care should be the dominant model of treatment organization. Evidence on (cost-) effectiveness compared with high-intensity psychological therapy alone, as well as with matched care, is required.
Mid-infrared (MIR) quasar spectra exhibit a suite of emission features including high ionization coronal lines from the narrow line region (NLR) illuminated by the ionizing continuum, and hot dust features from grains, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) features from star formation in the host galaxy. Few features are detected in most spectra because of typically low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data. By generating spectral composites in three different luminosity bins from over 180 Spitzer Ifnfrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, we boost the S/N and reveal important features in the complex spectra. We detect high-ionization, forbidden emission lines in all templates, PAH features in all but the most luminous objects, and broad silicate and graphite features in emission whose strength increases relative to the continuum with luminosity. We find that the intrinsic quasar spectrum for all luminosity templates is consistent, and the differences in the spectra can be explained by host galaxy contamination in the lower luminosity templates. We also posit that star formation may be active in most quasar host galaxies, but the spectral features of star formation are only detectable if the quasar is faint.