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Discovery tools and interfaces have emerged through a number of routes over the past 20 years: protocols to search across multiple sources (e.g. Z39.50) have had tools developed around them; library management systems have provided tools to bring to the surface the content they manage; specific library collection indices have been built and had tools developed to provide access to them; and the richness of the web has been surfaced through web search engines. The origins of these discovery tools have frequently informed how they have then evolved and matured, and how they have been adapted to meet changing needs within libraries and beyond. Blacklight is no different: because of its origin as part of a digital humanities project, it has been clear from the start that discovery had to be adaptable if it was to work across multiple types of resource and associated metadata. This starting point has enabled Blacklight to evolve to meet specific needs but always hold at its centre the need to be flexible with regard to what is being accessed and support the discovery needs of end-users.
Blacklight (http://projectblacklight.org) itself is an open source Ruby on Rails engine that provides a discovery interface for an Apache Solr index (Blacklight Project, 2019a). Its flexibility comes from two places:
Apache Solr (http://lucene.apache.org/solr/), built on the underlying Apache Lucene search engine, offers a very flexible way of indexing the content to be searched. It is widely used around the world for many search applications. While Blacklight's default Solr configuration settings will often be sufficient, there is real additional value to be gained from exploiting how Solr indexes resources to meet specific needs.
Blacklight itself can be used to provide discovery across heterogeneous resources. It exploits Solr's capability of being able to index different types of metadata together (acknowledging the need for a mapping between them), and can also display different resources via different templates, allowing for specific views onto resources.
The flexibility is also inherent in the separation of the discovery interface from the underlying data. Blacklight operates by taking a feed from a data source (e.g. a library catalogue) and presenting it in a way that is not constrained by the underlying data structure: the Solr indexing and configuration of views can apply its own structure, so that discovery can focus on user behaviour and needs instead of database tables.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines psychopharmacology as ‘the scientific study of the effect of drugs on the mind and behaviour’ (Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2018). The earliest reference to the term was in 1548 when Reinhard Lorichius published the prayer book Psychopharmakon, hoc est Medicina Animae (Lehmann, 1993; Wolman, 1977). Lorichius coined the term ‘psychopharmakon’ to refer to spiritual medicine that could reduce human suffering. The word psychopharmacology was first used in a scientific paper in 1920 by a pharmacologist working at Johns Hopkins University who wrote a short paper entitled Contributions to psychopharmacology (Macht, 1920).
WHILE MUCH SCHOLARLY ATTENTION has been devoted to John Gower's revisions in Confessio Amantis, most of it has had to do with the political conditions under which he was working. One prominent exception involves his rewriting of what Peter Nicholson has called, “the two most famous lines in the entire poem” – a process that C.S. Lewis in The Allegory of Love characterized as purely aesthetic:
The famous line
The beaute faye upon her face
attained its present form only by successive revisions – revisions which demonstrate, so far as such things can be demonstrated, the working of a fine, and finely self-critical, poetic impulse. The first version –
The beaute of hire face schon
Wel bryhtere than the Cristall ston,
– is just what would have contented the ordinary ‘unconscious’ spinner of yarns in rhyme; but it did not content Gower.
Gower, Lewis goes on to suggest, excelled at what Dryden was to call “the fairy way of writing” (220), and his careful revision of this passage from “The Tale of Rosiphilee” offers one instance of his responding to its appeal.
John Lawlor, in an oddly disputatious piece intended for a volume published in Lewis’ memory, takes issue with this reading. It betrays, he suggests, an overly romanticized view of Gower – Lewis had gone so far as to claim that Gower was “‘romantic’ in the nineteenth-century sense of the word” (220) – because it fails to appreciate that the word faye represents “a possible mode of being.” “The apparatus of past belief,” he writes, in an interesting anticipation of Todorov's distinction between the fantastic and the marvelous, “can become the vehicle of ‘romantic’ treatment only when it is freed from every touch of objective likelihood” (126). In other words, in a world where people might still believe in their existence, fairies could not possibly function as the vehicles of romantic fantasy. I agree with Lawlor's criticism here – though in general it seems to me far more appropriate to the Lewis of the Allegory of Love (written in 1936) than to the one of The Discarded Image (published posthumously thirty years later) – but I suspect that there are even more cogent objections to be raised to Lewis’ argument.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
For decades, the U.S. Air Force has contemplated replacing the A-10 Thunderbolt II “Warthog” with a newer fighter aircraft. However, a quantitative analysis comparing the Warthog’s performance and costs with those of its intended replacement, the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, shows that retiring the Warthog would be operationally unsound and fiscally imprudent. The rationale for the replacement is that it would increase airpower capability while controlling costs. That rationale does not withstand scrutiny. An effectiveness analysis based on results from a survey of joint terminal attack controllers indicates that the A-10 vastly outperforms the F-35 in providing close-air support (CAS), a critical requirement for future conflicts against terrorists and insurgents. A cost analysis demonstrates that replacing the A-10 before its service life ends in 2035 would cost at least $20.9 billion. The replacement plan would waste substantial resources and seriously impair U.S. military capabilities. Given that constrained future budgets and low-intensity conflicts requiring precision CAS can be expected, the U.S. air fleet should include the A-10 Thunderbolt II.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
Systems engineering and design thinking have been widely seen as distinctly different processes, systems engineering being more data-driven and analytical, and design thinking being more human- centred and creative. We use the term ‘design thinking’ to encompass the plurality of human-centered design processes that seek to unpack the core values behind design decisions. With the increased awareness that both systems engineering and design thinking need each other, the effects of a possibly persisting distinction on engineers’ attitudes toward these two processes are not well understood. In this paper, we describe the development and validation of a scale for measuring individual attitudes about systems engineering and design thinking. Thematic analysis of engineering and design literature is used to derive a Likert scale reflecting these attitudes. We use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test and confirm this two-factor thematic representation, resulting in a 9-item Systems Engineering and Design Thinking Scale measure of attitudes.
Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the effects of the use in livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is nephrotoxic to Gyps vultures. In 2006, veterinary use of diclofenac was banned in Nepal and this was followed by the gradual implementation, over most of the geographical range of the two vulture species in Nepal, of a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) programme to advocate vulture conservation, raise awareness about diclofenac, provide vultures with NSAID-free food and encourage the veterinary use in livestock of a vulture-safe alternative NSAID (meloxicam). We report the results of long-term monitoring of vulture populations in Nepal before and after this programme was implemented, by means of road transects. Piecewise regression analysis of the count data indicated that a rapid decline of the White-rumped Vulture population from 2002 up to about 2013 gave way to a partial recovery between about 2013 and 2018. More limited data for the Slender-billed Vulture indicated that a rapid decline also gave way to partial recovery from about 2012 onwards. The rates at which populations were increasing in the 2010s exceeded the upper end of the range of increase rates expected in a closed population under optimal conditions. The possibility that immigration from India is contributing to the changes cannot be excluded. We present evidence from open and undercover pharmacy surveys that the VSZ programme had apparently become effective in reducing the availability of diclofenac in a large part of the range of these species in Nepal by about 2011. Hence, community-based advocacy and awareness-raising actions, and possibly also provisioning of safe food, may have made an important contribution to vulture conservation by augmenting the effects of changes in the regulation of toxic veterinary drugs.
Disasters can damage the essential public health infrastructure and social protection systems required for vulnerable populations. This contributes to indirect mortality and morbidity as high as 70–90%, primarily due to an exacerbation of life-threatening conditions and chronic diseases. Despite this, the traditional focus of public health systems has been on communicable diseases. To address this challenge, disaster and health planners require access to repeatable and measurable methods to rank and prioritize the needs of people with life-threatening and chronic diseases before, during, and after a disaster.
Propose a repeatable and measurable method for ranking and prioritizing the needs of people with life-threatening and chronic diseases before, during, and after a disaster.
The research began with identifying the risk disasters pose to people with life-threatening and chronic diseases. The data gathered was then used to develop indicators and explore the use of DisasterAWARE™ (All-hazard Warnings, Analysis, and Risk Evaluation) to rank and prioritize the needs before, during, and after a disaster.
This research found people at greatest risk are those with underlying cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, unstable diabetes, renal diseases, and those undergoing cancer treatment. A sustainable method to help address this problem is to expand the use of DisasterAWARE™ (All-hazard Warnings, Analysis, and Risk Evaluation) to rank and prioritize needs at national and sub-national levels.
DisasterAWARE™ has been successfully applied to the assessment and prioritization of disaster risk and humanitarian assistance needs in Southeast Asia (ASEAN, Viet Nam), Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua), South America (Peru), and the Caribbean (Jamaica, Dominican Republic). Using the indicators developed through this research, this proven methodology can be seamlessly and easily translated to rank and prioritize the needs of people with life-threatening and chronic diseases before, during, and after a disaster.
Exposure to traumatic events is surprisingly common, yet little is known about its effect on decision making beyond the fact that those with post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to have substance-abuse problems. We examined the effects of exposure to severe trauma on decision making in low-income, urban African Americans, a group especially likely to have had such traumatic experiences.
Participants completed three decision-making tasks that assessed the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards and payments and of probabilistic rewards. Trauma-exposed cases and controls were propensity-matched on demographic measures, treatment for psychological problems, and substance dependence.
Trauma-exposed cases discounted the value of delayed rewards and delayed payments, but not probabilistic rewards, more steeply than controls. Surprisingly, given previous findings that suggested women are more affected by trauma when female and male participants’ data were analyzed separately, only the male cases showed steeper delay discounting. Compared with nonalcoholic males who were not exposed to trauma, both severe trauma and alcohol-dependence produced significantly steeper discounting of delayed rewards.
The current study shows that exposure to severe trauma selectively affects fundamental decision-making processes. Only males were affected, and effects were observed only on discounting delayed outcomes (i.e. intertemporal choice) and not on discounting probabilistic outcomes (i.e. risky choice). These findings are the first to show significant differences in the effects of trauma on men's and women's decision making, and the selectivity of these effects has potentially important implications for treatment and also provides clues as to underlying mechanisms.
The study is aimed to better understand how post-acute-care services help persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families following acute-care discharge. Participants included 21 primary family caregivers of persons with ABI. Participants reported their level of satisfaction with 14 different post-acute-care ABI services following discharge from an acute-care ABI facility in a large south-western city in the United States. Participants completed a survey following the discharge (on average 8.1 months) of their family member from acute-care services. Surveys included both quantitative and open-ended questions. The present study focused on participant satisfaction ratings and perceptions of helpfulness among the 14 different service areas. The average satisfaction rating across the 14 service areas was 73.4%. Professional consultation and assessment (81.8%) received the highest satisfaction rating, followed by therapy and intervention (77.9%), and peer support (51.9%). Open-ended question responses on the helpfulness of post-acute-care services focused on (a) therapy and intervention and (b) professional consultation and assessment. Study findings highlight the need to track the use of ABI services from the acute-phase through long-term community adjustment. Findings also underscore the importance of targeting interventions and services specific to the post-acute phase of ABI rehabilitation.
The diagnosis of dementia remains inadequate, even within clinical settings. Data on rates and degree of impairment among inpatients are vital for service planning and the provision of appropriate patient care as Ireland's population ages.
Every patient aged 65 years and over admitted over a two-week period was invited to participate. Those who met inclusion criteria were screened for delirium then underwent cognitive screening. Demographic, functional, and outcome data were obtained from medical records, participants, and family.
Consent to participate was obtained from 68.6% of the eligible population. Data for 143 patients were obtained. Mean age 78.1 years. 27.3% met criteria for dementia and 21% had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Only 41% of those with dementia and 10% of those with MCI had a previously documented impairment. Between-group analysis showed differences in length of stay (p = 0.003), number of readmissions in 12 months (p = 0.036), and likelihood of returning home (p = 0.039) between the dementia and normal groups. MCI outcomes were similar to the normal group. No difference was seen for one-year mortality. Effects were less pronounced on multivariate analysis but continued to show a significant effect on length of stay even after controlling for demographics, personal and family history, and anxiety and depression screening scores. Patients with dementia remained in hospital 15.3 days longer (p = 0.047). A diagnosis is the single biggest contributing factor to length of stay in our regression model.
Cognitive impairment is pervasive and under-recognized in the acute hospital and impacts negatively on patient outcomes.
The study aimed to understand the use and barriers to use of post-acute-care services by persons with acquired brain injury (ABI). A total of 21 primary family caregivers of persons recently discharged from an ABI acute-care facility in a large southwestern city in the United States participated. Service use in 14 domains appeared consistent with post-discharge needs. In five service areas, participants were not aware the service was available. Professionals in acute ABI rehabilitation units need to be fully aware of the range of available potential supports and diligent in informing injured persons and their families about available post-discharge services.
The Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii is endemic to the small islands of Anjouan and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago, Indian Ocean. The species is under threat from anthropogenic pressure on the little that remains of its forest habitat, now restricted to the islands’ upper elevations and steepest slopes. We report the results of the most comprehensive survey of this species to date, and present recommendations for ongoing field conservation efforts and monitoring. Morning counts were conducted at roost sites in the wet and dry seasons during 2011–2013. Habitat structure around the roosting sites was characterized and roost numbers compared, to investigate the potential effect of habitat loss and degradation. We estimate the population to comprise c. 1,260 individuals distributed across 21 roosts on the two islands. All occupied roosting sites were restricted to a narrow altitudinal range, and roosting populations in agroforestry areas were smaller than those found in degraded and undisturbed forest. Only one of the 16 roosts on Anjouan was found in undisturbed, old-growth forest with no nearby signs of clearance for agriculture or landslides following tree-felling upslope. Following a suspected severe population decline as a result of widespread and long-term forest loss Livingstone's fruit bat has been recategorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Upper Mustang region of Nepal holds important breeding populations of Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis. Despite this species being considered ‘Least Concern’ on the IUCN Red List, the population in Upper Mustang had declined substantially in the early to mid-2000s. During that period, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac was commonly used to treat illness and injury in domesticated ungulates throughout Nepal. The timing and magnitude of declines in Himalayan Griffon in Upper Mustang resemble the declines in resident populations of the ‘Critically Endangered’ White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris in Nepal, both of which are also known to be highly sensitive to diclofenac. Since 2006, the veterinary use of diclofenac has been banned in Nepal to prevent further vulture declines. In this paper, we analyse the population trend in Himalayan Griffon in Upper Mustang between 2002 and 2014 and show a partial recovery. We conclude that the decline is now occurring at a slower rate than previously observed and immigration from areas where diclofenac was either not or rarely used the probable explanation for the recovery observed.
This will be the last triennial report from Commission 50 under that label, because of the reorganization of the IAU at the end of the triennial period. Fortunately, site protection was recognized as an important ongoing function of the IAU, and the work of the Commission is continuing as Commission C.B7. The Commission has its primary association with Division B because of the technical aspects of its work and association with ground-based facilities, while it has the support of Division C as an Inter-Division Commission because of the strong need for educating the public on the issues.
The closing session included a panel on the challenge of raising cultural awareness of the negative effects of light pollution and RFI, and a discussion about the means to implement the IAU Resolution on the Right to Starlight. The strongest arguments to the public are that light pollution wastes precious energy and adds greenhouse gases, and that artificial light at night can be damaging to human health and to the natural environment. As astronomers, our community is concerned that the world is blinding itself to the electromagnetic radiation connecting us to the Universe. An outcome of successful advocacy would be to create demand for commercial products that minimize blue light and upward radiation. Implementation of the resolution on the Right to Starlight has multiple aspects. The IAU, through its site protection commission, should provide a clear technical description of "astronomy friendly" lighting and specifications for protection of the near zones around optical observatories. In addition, the commission should provide reference materials for astronomers giving public presentations, provide a forum for those seeking stronger local or national regulation, seek IAU approval for endorsement of protected status of sites and regions, and support the process of gaining UNESCO World Heritage Status for observatories and their regions.
The Executive Committee Working Group on “Cosmic Light” was created in 2014 (at its EC94 Meeting, Apr.30-May 2, Canberra, Australia), in preparation of the contribution of the IAU to the UNESCO “2015 International Year of Light and Light Technologies” (IYL2015), which had been approved by the UN in December 2013 (see http://www.light2015.org/Home.html).