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This paper is a revised and updated edition of a previous description of the Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS), an ongoing prospective longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort of twins born between 1995 and 1998 in the greater Montreal area, Québec, Canada. The goal of QNTS is to document individual differences in the cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of developmental health across childhood, their early genetic and environmental determinants, as well as their putative role in later social-emotional adjustment, school, health, and occupational outcomes. A total of 662 families of twins were initially assessed when the twins were aged 6 months. These twins and their family were then followed regularly. QNTS now has 16 waves of data collected or planned, including 5 in preschool. Over the last 24 years, a broad range of physiological, cognitive, behavioral, school, and health phenotypes were documented longitudinally through multi-informant and multimethod measurements. QNTS also entails extended and detailed multilevel assessments of proximal (e.g., parenting behaviors, peer relationships) and distal (e.g., family income) features of the child’s environment. QNTS children and a subset of their parents have been genotyped, allowing for the computation of a variety of polygenic scores. This detailed longitudinal information makes QNTS uniquely suited for the study of the role of the early years and gene–environment transactions in development.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Childhood disruptive behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with adverse long-term social and economic outcomes. Trajectories of welfare receipt in early adulthood and the association of childhood behaviors with high welfare receipt trajectories have not been examined.
Boys (n = 1000) from low socioeconomic backgrounds were assessed by kindergarten teachers for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, opposition, and prosociality, and prospectively followed up for 30 years. We used group-base trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories of welfare receipt from age 19–36 years using government tax return records, then examined the association between teacher-rated behaviors and trajectory group membership using mixed effects multinomial regression models.
Three trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (70.8%), declining (19.9%), and chronic (9.3%). The mean annual personal employment earnings (US$) for the three groups at age 35/36 years was $36 500 (s.d. = $24 000), $15 600 (s.d. = $16 275), and $1700 (s.d. = $4800), respectively. Relative to the low welfare receipt group, a unit increase in inattention (mean = 2.64; s.d. = 2.32, range = 0–8) at age 6 was associated with an increased risk of being in the chronic group (relative risk ratio; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) and in the declining group (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23), after adjustment for child IQ and family adversity, and independent of other behaviors. Family adversity was more strongly associated with trajectories of welfare receipt than any behavior.
Boys from disadvantaged backgrounds exhibiting high inattention in kindergarten are at elevated risk of chronic welfare receipt during adulthood. Screening and support for inattentive behaviors beginning in kindergarten could have long-term social and economic benefits for individuals and society.
Among children exposed to elevated maternal depression symptoms (MDS), recent studies have demonstrated reduced internalizing and externalizing problems for those who have attended formal childcare (i.e., center-based, family-based childcare). However, these studies did not consider whether childcare attendance is associated with benefits for the child only or also with reduced MDS. Using a four-wave longitudinal cross-lagged model, we evaluated whether formal childcare attendance was associated with MDS or child behavior problems and whether it moderated longitudinal associations between MDS and child behavior problems and between child behavior problems and MDS. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study and consisted of 908 biologically related mother–child dyads, followed from 5 months to 5 years. Attending formal childcare was not associated with MDS or child behavior problems but moderated the association between MDS at 3.5 years and child internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years as well as between girls’ externalizing problems at 3.5 years and MDS at 5 years. No other moderation of formal childcare was found. Findings suggest that attending formal childcare reduces the risks of behavior problems in the context of MDS but also the risk of MDS in the context of girls’ externalizing problems.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
This article describes a semester-long classroom simulation of the Syrian conflict designed for an introductory international relations (IR) course. The simulation culminates with two weeks of multi-stakeholder negotiations addressing four issues: humanitarian aid, economic sanctions, ceasefire, and political transition. Students randomly play one of 15 roles involving three actor types: states, non-state actors, and international organizations. This article outlines the costs and benefits of simulation design options toward encouraging students’ understanding of IR concepts, and it proposes a course plan for tightly integrating lectures, readings, assessment, and simulation—regardless of class size or length. We highlight this integration through a discussion of two weeks’ worth of material—domestic politics and war, and non-state actors—and the incorporation of bargaining concepts and frameworks into the two weeks of simulated multi-stakeholder negotiations.
The need for reliable standards for the characterization of x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) instruments has been well documented. As a result of the round robin study, of various candidate standard materials, described by Fawcett et al., the National Institute of Science and Technology has made the SRM-660, lanthanum hexaboride, XRD peak width standard available. It has been normal practice to use powder sample standards for XRD powder diffraction studies. Powder standards have been justified on the principle that standards should be as much as possible like the unknowns to be analyzed; however, standards must be quite different from the unknowns because their peak profiles must be as narrow as possible for deconvolution from sample peak profiles. It would seem most advantageous to use standards of the highest degree of crystallinity so that they would be useful over the maximum number of applications. Single crystals, with their extremely high crystallinity, offer that advantage.
Gold wires were vaporized by the exploding-wire phenomenon using a 20 μF capacitor bank charged to voltages up to 14 kV. The resulting condensate, an aerosol or metallic smoke, was collected on membrane filters and subjected to X-ray analysis to determine lattice constant, crystallite size, and behavior with isothermal annealing. Wire explosions were conducted in au ambient atmosphere of ait or nitrogen at barometric pressure. It is estimated that the quench rate for this material is of the order of 108 deg/sec from the melting point although no substrate is involved and it is expected that any effects of epitaxial origin on the structure would be minimized.
Before annealing, diffractograms showed broad peaks apparently shifted to the high-angle side. Line breadth may be attributed primarily to particle size broadening, since ft correlates well with size determined by electron microscopy, (β cos θ) is linear with θ, and [(β cos θ)/λ] is approximately constant for three radiations used. Crystallite size is of the order of 400 Å and is observed to decrease roughly with increasing voltage used for vaporization. The observed lattice decrement, approximately 0.2%, generally increases with voltage used for vaporization, and apparently correlates rather well with the inverse of sise as has been reported in some work on thin gold films. However, studies of colloidal gold particles do not show significant lattice shifts, although the particle size is less than 100 Å so that the decrements observed may be due to factors other than size alone. For this black, particulate material, some lattice decrement apparently persists even after protracted isothermal annealing below the melting point. Crystallite size increases with annealing but remains below about 1000 Å. Results suggest that the lattice decrements observed in condensed gold vapor are due to surface tension effects and the presence of vacancy aggregates.
Determining the effects of light pollution on tropical bat communities is important for understanding community assembly rules in urban areas. Studies from temperate regions suggest that, among aerial insectivorous bats, fast-flying species that forage in the open are attracted to artificial lights, whereas slow-flying species that forage in cluttered environments avoid those lights. We measured aerial insectivore responses to light pollution in a tropical cloud forest to test this hypothesis. Bat echolocation was recorded at 20 pairs of light and dark sites in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Foraging activity was higher at artificially lighted sites than dark sites near the new moon, especially around blue-white fluorescent lighting. Most recorded bat species showed increased or unchanged activity in response to light, including some slow-flying and edge-foraging bats. This finding suggests that, contrary to the evaluated hypothesis, flight speed and foraging mode are not sufficient to determine bat responses to artificial lights in the tropics. Two bat species showed decreased activity at light sites, and a low species evenness was recorded around lights, particularly fluorescent lights, compared with dark sites. As in the temperate zone, light pollution in the tropics seems to concentrate certain bat species around human-inhabited areas, potentially shifting community structure.
A 15-month-old child underwent percutaneous expansion of a Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in the mitral position to accommodate growth after initial surgical implantation during infancy, but transiently decompensated after valvuloplasty owing to stent malformation. The Melody valve in the mitral position of small patients can be further expanded by percutaneous dilation, but there are a number of potential complications and technical improvements to consider.
Heritability of antisocial behaviour is estimated at approximately 50% and involves multiple genes.
To investigate the cumulative genetic effects of 116 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to 11 candidate serotonergic genes and antisocial behaviours, in adolescence and in early adulthood.
Participants were 410 male members of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children, a population-based cohort followed up prospectively from age 6 to age 23. The serotonergic genes were selected based on known physiological processes and prior associations with antisocial behaviours. Antisocial behaviours were self-reported and assessed by using semi-structured interviews in adolescence and in adulthood.
Cumulative, haplotype-based contributions of serotonergic genes conferring risk and protection for antisocial behaviours were detected by using multilocus genetic profile risk scores (MGPRSs) and multilocus genetic profile protection scores (MGPPSs). Cumulatively, haplotype-based MGPRSs and MGPPSs contributed to 9.6, 8.5 and 15.2% of the variance in general delinquency in adolescence, property/violent crimes in early adulthood and physical partner violence in early adulthood, respectively.
This study extends previous research by showing a cumulative effect of multiple haplotypes conferring risk and protection to antisocial behaviours in adolescence and early adulthood. The findings further support the relevance of concomitantly considering multiple serotonergic polymorphisms to better understand the genetic aetiology of antisocial behaviours. Future studies should investigate the interplay between risk and protective haplotype-based multilocus genetic profile scores with the environment.
Declaration of interest:
I.O.-M. holds a Canada Research Chair in the developmental origins of vulnerability and resilience.
In this study of the early US Congress (First through Nineteenth: 1789–1827), we assess the impact of slavery on the electoral competitiveness of House elections. Slavery and other forms of labor repressive agriculture have long been known to undermine democracy. Using district-level measures of electoral competitiveness and slavery, we find that a higher percentage of slaves in a district negatively impacts competition, even when we limit our models to Southern elections. Our findings indicate that from the nation's founding up to the age of Andrew Jackson, slavery strongly accounts for a pronounced disparity in the competitiveness of House elections.
New collaborative care models with an emphasis on primary care are required for long-term management of patients with severe and enduring mental illness (SMI). We conducted a descriptive evaluation of clinical outcomes of the first 3 years of a novel enhanced primary care (EPC) service. Data from 2818 patients and staff survey results were analysed.
2310 patients were discharged to EPC (508 not assessed as clinically suitable or patients/general practitioners declined the transfer); mean length of stay with secondary care service of the cohort was 9.8 years (range 0–24). 717 patients (31%) have been discharged to primary care only out of the EPC services and 233 patients (10%) have been transferred back to secondary care. Patient and staff satisfaction with the new EPC model was high. No severe untoward incidents were recorded.
The data suggest that EPC can be safely provided for a significant proportion of patients with SMI, who traditionally received long-term secondary care support. The novel EPC model can be utilised as a template for the provision of cost-effective, recovery-oriented and non-stigmatising care in the community.
Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first ‘1000 days’, it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve health and school performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different micronutrient-fortified rice formulations on cognitive function in Cambodian children.
Sixteen Cambodian schools receiving SMP.
The FORISCA-UltraRice®+NutriRice® study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four groups of four schools were randomly allocated to receive normal rice, UltraRice®Original, UltraRice®New or NutriRice®. Within each school, 132 children were randomly selected. Data on cognitive performance (picture completion, block design and Raven’s coloured progressive matrices (RCPM)), anthropometry, parasite infestation and micronutrient status were collected before the intervention and after 6 months.
Cognitive data were available for 1796 children aged 6–16 years.
All cognitive scores improved after 6 months (P<0·001). Block design score improvement was significantly higher in children consuming UltraRice®Original (P=0·03) compared with the other fortified rice groups and placebo. No difference among groups was found on RCPM or picture completion scores. Stunting, parasite infestation and inflammation negatively affected the impact of the intervention.
Combined with other interventions, using SMP to distribute fortified rice to schoolchildren may be a cost-effective way to increase cognitive performance and thereby improve school performance and educational achievements.
Optical SETI at Lick Observatory is characterized by its robust approach to initial detections. Our three-detector system has distinguished itself by successful rejection of nearly all false positive signals. We present observational progress, discuss use of data analysis procedures such as FFTs and analysis of double coincidences, and mention plans to upgrade our instrumentation.
On 16–18 June 2008 the US National Snow and Ice Data Center held a GLIMS workshop in Boulder, CO, USA, focusing on formulating procedures and best practices for operational glacier mapping using satellite imagery. Despite the progress made in recent years, there still remain many cases where automatic delineation of glacier boundaries in satellite imagery is difficult, error prone or time-consuming. This workshop identified six themes for consideration by focus groups: (1) mapping clean ice and lakes; (2) mapping ice divides; (3) mapping debris-covered glaciers; (4) assessing changes in glacier area and elevation through comparisons with older data; (5) digital elevation model (DEM) generation from satellite stereo pairs; and (6) accuracy and error analysis. Talks presented examples and work in progress for each of these topics, and focus groups worked on compiling a summary of available algorithms and procedures to address and avoid identified hurdles. Special emphasis was given to establishing standard protocols for glacier delineation and analysis, creating illustrated tutorials and providing source code for available methods. This paper summarizes the major results of the 2008 GLIMS workshop, with an emphasis on definitions, methods and recommendations for satellite data processing. While the list of proposed methods and recommendations is not comprehensive and is still a work in progress, our goal here is to provide a starting point for the GLIMS regional centers as well as for the wider glaciological community in terms of documentation on possible pitfalls along with potential solutions.
A widely used method for investigating palaeotemperatures is to analyze local proxy records (e.g. ice cores or deep-sea sediment cores). The interpretation of these records is often not straightforward, and global or hemispheric means cannot be deduced from local estimates because of large spatial variability. Using a different approach, temperature changes over the last glacial cycle can be estimated from sea-level observations by applying an inverse method to an ice-sheet model. In order to understand the underlying physical mechanisms, we used a 1-D ice-sheet model and a 3-D coupled thermodynamic ice-sheet–ice-shelf–bedrock model to investigate the importance of several physical processes for the inverse temperature reconstructions. Results show that (i) temperature reconstructions are sensitive to the employed formulation of mass balance, (ii) excluding thermodynamics in the ice sheet leads to a smaller temperature amplitude in the reconstruction and (iii) hysteresis in the non-linear relation between sea level and temperature occurs as a consequence of ice redistribution in the process of merging and separation of ice sheets. The ice redistribution does not occur if the geometry does not support the formation of a relatively flat dome, which tends to be preserved in warming conditions.
Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding-line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). Perturbation experiments specifying spatial variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Steady-state grounding-line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Resolving grounding lines requires inclusion of membrane stresses, a sufficiently small grid size (<500 m), or subgrid interpolation of the grounding line. The latter still requires nominal grid sizes of <5 km. For larger grid spacings, appropriate parameterizations for ice flux may be imposed at the grounding line, but the short-time transient behaviour is then incorrect and different from models that do not incorporate grounding-line parameterizations. The numerical error associated with predicting grounding-line motion can be reduced significantly below the errors associated with parameter ignorance and uncertainties in future scenarios.