Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a condition caused by spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Clinically, it is characterized by orthostatic headache and may respond well to epidural blood patch. Other neurological presentations of SIH include diplopia, memory loss, hearing deficits, Parkinsonism, ataxia, obtundation and even coma.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial in the diagnosis of this condition. Typical radiological features include diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement, descent of the cerebellar tonsil, a decrease in the size of prepontine and perichiasmatic cisterns, and subdural fluid collections. However, radiological imaging such as radionuclide cisternography or spinal MRI are not reliable in detecting the site of leakage. Myelography with iodinated contrast followed by thin-cut computed tomography (CT) or MRI of the entire spine has been shown as the technique of choice in defining the location of the CSF leak.