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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Chondrichthyan teeth from a new locality in the Scottish Borders supply additional evidence of Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans in the UK. The interbedded dolostones and siltstones of the Ballagan Formation exposed along Whitrope Burn are interpreted as representing a restricted lagoonal environment that received significant amounts of land-derived sediment. This site is palynologically dated to the latest Tournaisian–early Viséan. The diverse dental fauna documented here is dominated by large crushing holocephalan toothplates, with very few, small non-crushing chondrichthyan teeth. Two new taxa are named and described. Our samples are consistent with worldwide evidence that chondrichthyan crushing faunas are common following the Hangenberg extinction event. The lagoonal habitat represented by Whitrope Burn may represent a temporary refugium that was host to a near-relict fauna dominated by large holocephalan chondrichthyans with crushing dentitions. Many of these had already become scarce in other localities by the Viséan and become extinct later in the Carboniferous. This fauna provides evidence of early endemism or niche separation within European chondrichthyan faunas at this time. This evidence points to a complex picture in which the diversity of durophagous chondrichthyans is controlled by narrow spatial shifts in niche availability over time.
Training for the clinical research workforce does not sufficiently prepare workers for today’s scientific complexity; deficiencies may be ameliorated with training. The Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications developed competency standards for principal investigators and clinical research coordinators.
Clinical and Translational Science Awards representatives refined competency statements. Working groups developed assessments, identified training, and highlighted gaps.
Forty-eight competency statements in 8 domains were developed.
Training is primarily investigator focused with few programs for clinical research coordinators. Lack of training is felt in new technologies and data management. There are no standardized assessments of competence.
The translation of discoveries to drugs, devices, and behavioral interventions requires well-prepared study teams. Execution of clinical trials remains suboptimal due to varied quality in design, execution, analysis, and reporting. A critical impediment is inconsistent, or even absent, competency-based training for clinical trial personnel.
In 2014, the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) funded the project, Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications (ECRPTQ), aimed at addressing this deficit. The goal was to ensure all personnel are competent to execute clinical trials. A phased structure was utilized.
This paper focuses on training recommendations in Good Clinical Practice (GCP). Leveraging input from all Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs, the following was recommended to NCATS: all investigators and study coordinators executing a clinical trial should understand GCP principles and undergo training every 3 years, with the training method meeting the minimum criteria identified by the International Conference on Harmonisation GCP.
We anticipate that industry sponsors will acknowledge such training, eliminating redundant training requests. We proposed metrics to be tracked that required further study. A separate task force was composed to define recommendations for metrics to be reported to NCATS.
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using likelihood of inadequate therapy (LIT), a parameter calculated by using pathogen frequency and in vitro susceptibility for determination of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy for primary bloodstream infections. Our study demonstrates that LIT may reveal differences in traditional antibiograms.
We present an exploration of the integrated stellar populations of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. We use two approaches: firstly the application of line-indices interpreted through single stellar population (SSP) models, which provide a single value of age, metallicity and abundance ratio. And secondly, by fitting a linear combination of SSP spectra to our data, smoothly weighted in the free parameters of age and metallicity, thereby inferring a star-formation history of these galaxies. Despite the significant differences in these approaches, we obtain generally consistent results, such that galaxies that are more massive appear older with enhanced abundance ratios using line indices, and have shorter star-formation histories weighted to early times. We highlight two limitations of the index-SSP approach. Firstly the SSP-equivalent ages belie the fact that ETGs are overwhelmingly composed of ancient stars. Secondly, the young stellar contributions implied in our star formation histories are required to obtain realistic UV-optical colours. We remark that, even fitting solar-abundance models, we can recover a star-formation duration that correlates with the measured alpha-enhancement, in agreement with other recent work.
Comparisons between the wetting characteristics of (0001)si 6H-SiC and (111) Si surfaces in various acids and bases were made. It was found that 10:1 HF dipped Si (111) surfaces were hydrophobic where as the (0001)si 6H-SiC surfaces were hydrophilic. (0001)si 6H-SiC surfaces capped with a 20Å Si layer, however, were hydrophobic after HF dipping and exhibited outgassing levels on annealing which were several orders of magnitude lower than SiC wafers dipped in HF without the capping layer. Annealing the Si capped (0001)si 6H-SiC surfaces in UHV at 1100°C for 5 min. was found to be sufficient to thermally desorb the Si capping layer and produce a (3×3) Si rich, oxygen free (0001)si 6H-SiC surface.
PFET devices fabricated using embedded SiGe source/drain on (110) silicon substrates have shown significant performance improvement compared to PFETs with embedded SiGe on (100) SOI substrates. In this paper, we report a systematic material characterization on the epitaxial SiGe films, both on blanket and patterned substrates, and corresponding PFET performance data. The SiGe films were deposited in an RTCVD system. The epitaxial growth rate on (110) substrates was 30% lower than on (100), and 30% higher on patterned device wafers compared to blanket wafers. Films were characterized using an array of methods such as High Resolution XRD (for Ge composition, strain and thickness), Auger (for Ge composition), UV Raman microprobe (for strain), AFM (for surface morphology), and TEM (for epi quality). The Ge compositions determined by XRD and Auger are in excellent agreement (15~16%). The amount of strain extracted from the Raman measurements is also consistent with the amount determined by XRD, which is 0.60%, corresponding to a fully strained Si0.85Ge0.15 film. AFM showed much higher RMS and Rmax for the SiGe films on (110) substrates compared to those on (100) substrates. XTEM showed high crystalline quality with very low defect count in the SiGe source/drain and Si channel regions. PFETs with an embedded Si0.85Ge0.15 source/drain on hybrid orientation (HOT) substrates provided a 30% advantage in drive current and a 23% enhancement in ring oscillator speed compared to control devices on (100) SOI wafer.