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Trigonometric parallaxes have been measured by Dahn et al. (2002) for 28 cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs, including 17 L dwarfs and three T dwarfs. Broadband CCD and near-IR photometry (VRIz*JHK) have been obtained for these objects and for 24 additional late-type dwarfs. These data have been supplemented with astrometry and photometry from the literature, including parallaxes for the brighter companions of ten L and two T dwarfs. The absolute magnitudes and colors are reviewed here. The I - J color and the spectral type are both good predictors of absolute magnitude for late-M and L dwarfs. MJ becomes monotonically fainter with I - J color and with spectral type through late-L dwarfs, then brightens for early-T dwarfs. In contrast, the J - K color correlates poorly with absolute magnitude for L dwarfs. Using several other parameters from the literature (Li detection, Hα emission strength, projected rotation velocity, and tangential velocity), we fail to uncover any measurable parameter that correlates with the anomalous J - K color.
The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (Δage) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different Δage measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each Δage measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both Δage measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of Δage is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in Δage for middle-aged women.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16µm thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3  (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the  bar axis with 1/3<110>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5º.
The co-occurrence of child conduct problems (CPs) and callous–unemotional (CU) traits confers risk for psychopathy. The oxytocin (OXT) system is a likely candidate for involvement in the development of psychopathy. We tested variations in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) in CP children and adolescents with varying levels of CU traits. Two samples of Caucasian children, aged 4–16 years, who met DSM criteria for disruptive behavior problems and had no features of autism spectrum disorder, were stratified into low versus high CU traits. Measures were the frequencies of nine candidate OXTR polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms). In Sample 1, high CU traits were associated with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1042778 in the 3′ untranslated region of OXTR and the CGCT haplotype of rs2268490, rs2254298, rs237889, and rs13316193. The association of rs1042778 was replicated in the second rural sample and held across gender and child versus adolescent age groups. We conclude that polymorphic variation of the OXTR characterizes children with high levels of CU traits and CPs. The results are consistent with a hypothesized role of OXT in the developmental antecedents of psychopathy, particularly the differential amygdala activation model of psychopathic traits, and add genetic evidence that high CU traits specify a distinct subgroup within CP children.
Child conduct problems (CPs) are a robust predictor of adult mental health; the concurrence of callous–unemotional (CU) traits confers specific risk for psychopathy. Psychopathy may be related to disturbances in the oxytocin (OXT) system. Evidence suggests that epigenetic changes in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with lower circulating OXT and social–cognitive difficulties. We tested methylation levels of OXTR in 4- to 16-year-old males who met DSM criteria for a diagnosis of oppositional–defiant or conduct disorder and were stratified by CU traits and age. Measures were DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the promoter region of the OXTR gene (where a CpG site is a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its lenth, linked together by phosphate binding), and OXT blood levels. High CU traits were associated with greater methylation of the OXTR gene for two cytosine nucleotide and guanine nucleotide phosphate linked sites and lower circulating OXT in older males. Higher methylation correlated with lower OXT levels. We conclude that greater methylation of OXTR characterizes adolescent males with high levels of CU and CPs, and this methylation is associated with lower circulating OXT and functional impairment in interpersonal empathy. The results add genetic evidence that high CU traits specify a distinct subgroup within CP children, and they suggest models of psychopathy may be informed by further identification of these epigenetic processes and their functional significance.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16[.proportional]m thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3 [11 20] (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (1 100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the [1 100] bar axis with 1/3<11 20>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5°.
Roman colored opaque vessel glasses and mosaic tesserae were examined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis, and scanning electron microscopy in order to identify the origins of the antimony-based glass opacifying agents used in the Roman period. Bindheimite and stibnite were considered as mineralogical sources of antimony, and antimonial litharge was investigated as a metallurgical source of antimony. The refining of antimonial silver ores was discussed as a source for antimonial litharge in the Roman period. The morphologies of the antimonate crystallites, their distributions, and the observed correlations of lead to antimony in the glasses indicated that roasted stibnite was the antimony source for the white and blue opaque glasses and antimonial litharge was the antimony source for the yellow and green opaque glasses. Opaque yellow Roman glasses were found to contain a mixture of clastic, subhedral, and euhedral lead pyroantimonate (Pb2Sb2O7) particles. The euhedral crystallites are a rhombohedral modification of Pb2Sb2O7 that is formed above 900 °C.
To evaluate the prevalence and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization, as well as risk factors associated with MRSA carriage, among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF).
Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.
A 100-bed Veterans Administration LTCF
All current and newly admitted residents of the LTCF during an 8-week study period.
Nasal swab samples were obtained weekly and cultured on MRSA-selective media, and the cultures were graded for growth on a semiquantitative scale from 0 (no growth) to 6 (heavy growth). Epidemiologic data for the periods before and during the study were collected to assess risk factors for MRSA carriage.
Of 83 LTCF residents, 49 (59%) had 1 or more nasal swab cultures that were positive for MRSA; 34 (41%) were consistently culture-negative (designated “noncarriers”). Of the 49 culture-positive residents, 30 (36% of the total of 83 residents) had all cultures positive for MRSA (designated “persistent carriers”), and 19 (23% of the 83 residents) had at least 1 culture, but not all cultures, positive for MRSA (designated “intermittent carriers”). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with at least 1 nasal swab culture positive for MRSA were likely to have had previous hospitalization (odds ratio, 3.9) or wounds (odds ratio, 8.2). Persistent carriers and intermittent carriers did not differ in epidemiologic characteristics but did differ in mean MRSA growth score (3.7 vs 0.7; P < .001).
Epidemiologic characteristics differed between noncarriers and subjects with at least 1 nasal swab culture positive for MRSA. However, in this LTCF population, only the degree of bacterial colonization (as reflected by mean MRSA growth score) distinguished persistent carriers from intermittent carriers. Understanding the burden of colonization may be important when determining future surveillance and control strategies.
Studying the raw materials used by ancient glassmakers provides information about ancient glassmaking practices, the relationship between glassmaking and other craft technologies (silicate-based or non-silicate-based), and the trading patterns of specific cultures. Colored opaque glasses are of particular interest because they were among the first mass-produced and mass-distributed glasses.
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