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Protected areas are central to global efforts to prevent species extinctions, with many countries investing heavily in their establishment. Yet the designation of protected areas alone can only abate certain threats to biodiversity. Targeted management within protected areas is often required to achieve fully effective conservation within their boundaries. It remains unclear what combination of protected area designation and management is needed to remove the suite of processes that imperil species. Here, using Australia as a case study, we use a dataset on the pressures facing threatened species to determine the role of protected areas and management in conserving imperilled species. We found that protected areas that are not resourced for threat management could remove one or more threats to 1,185 (76%) species and all threats to very few (n = 51, 3%) species. In contrast, a protected area network that is adequately resourced to manage threatening processes within their boundary could remove one or more threats to almost all species (n = 1,551; c. 100%) and all threats to almost half (n = 740, 48%). However, 815 (52%) species face one or more threats that require coordinated conservation actions that protected areas alone could not remove. This research shows that investing in the continued expansion of Australia's protected area network without providing adequate funding for threat management within and beyond the existing protected area network will benefit few threatened species. These findings highlight that as the international community expands the global protected area network in accordance with the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, a greater emphasis on the effectiveness of threat management is needed.
The Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii is endemic to the small islands of Anjouan and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago, Indian Ocean. The species is under threat from anthropogenic pressure on the little that remains of its forest habitat, now restricted to the islands’ upper elevations and steepest slopes. We report the results of the most comprehensive survey of this species to date, and present recommendations for ongoing field conservation efforts and monitoring. Morning counts were conducted at roost sites in the wet and dry seasons during 2011–2013. Habitat structure around the roosting sites was characterized and roost numbers compared, to investigate the potential effect of habitat loss and degradation. We estimate the population to comprise c. 1,260 individuals distributed across 21 roosts on the two islands. All occupied roosting sites were restricted to a narrow altitudinal range, and roosting populations in agroforestry areas were smaller than those found in degraded and undisturbed forest. Only one of the 16 roosts on Anjouan was found in undisturbed, old-growth forest with no nearby signs of clearance for agriculture or landslides following tree-felling upslope. Following a suspected severe population decline as a result of widespread and long-term forest loss Livingstone's fruit bat has been recategorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Trigonometric parallaxes have been measured by Dahn et al. (2002) for 28 cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs, including 17 L dwarfs and three T dwarfs. Broadband CCD and near-IR photometry (VRIz*JHK) have been obtained for these objects and for 24 additional late-type dwarfs. These data have been supplemented with astrometry and photometry from the literature, including parallaxes for the brighter companions of ten L and two T dwarfs. The absolute magnitudes and colors are reviewed here. The I - J color and the spectral type are both good predictors of absolute magnitude for late-M and L dwarfs. MJ becomes monotonically fainter with I - J color and with spectral type through late-L dwarfs, then brightens for early-T dwarfs. In contrast, the J - K color correlates poorly with absolute magnitude for L dwarfs. Using several other parameters from the literature (Li detection, Hα emission strength, projected rotation velocity, and tangential velocity), we fail to uncover any measurable parameter that correlates with the anomalous J - K color.
The surface composition of Mars has been investigated using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument during the mapping phase of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. The TES has mapped ~85% of the Martian surface at a resolution of 3-9 km. Separation of the atmospheric dust, water-ice cloud, CO2, water vapor, and surface components has been accomplished using radiative transfer and deconvolution. Two distinct surface compositional units have been mapped; (1) a basalt with plagioclase feldspar, Ca-rich pyroxene, minor sheet silicates; and (2) a basaltic andesite with silica glass, plagioclase, and minor pyroxene. Three large-scale (100’s km) accumulations of hematite have been found in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos and Ophir/Candor Chasms. These regions are interpreted to be formed by aqueous precipitation under either ambient or hydrothermal conditions. No surfaces with detectable abundances of carbonate have been found. The albedo of the surface has been mapped with an absolute accuracy of ~1-2% and significant changes in surface albedo have occurred from the orbital measurements obtained by the Viking IRTM instrument.
Background: Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Methods: Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. Results: The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. Conclusions: There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.
Despite elevated risk profiles for depression among South Asian and Black Caribbean people in the UK, prevalences of late-life depressive symptoms across the UK's three major ethnic groups have not been well characterized.
Data were collected at baseline and 20-year follow-up from 632 European, 476 South Asian and 181 Black Caribbean men and women (aged 58–88 years), of a community-based cohort study from north-west London. The 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale was interviewer-administered during a clinic visit (depressive symptoms defined as a score of ⩾4 out of 10), with clinical data (adiposity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cognitive function) also collected. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, disability, and medical history information was obtained by questionnaire.
Prevalence of depressive symptoms varied by ethnic group, affecting 9.7% of White European, 15.5% of South Asian, and 17.7% of Black Caribbean participants. Compared with White Europeans, South Asian and Black Caribbean participants were significantly more likely to have depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.24–2.58 and 1.80, 1.11–2.92, respectively). Adjustment for co-morbidities had most effect on the excess South Asian odds, and adjustment for socioeconomic position had most effect on the elevated Black Caribbean odds.
Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms observed among South Asian people were attenuated after adjustment for physical health, whereas the Black Caribbean increased prevalence was most explained by socioeconomic disadvantage. It is important to understand the reasons for these ethnic differences to identify opportunities for interventions to address inequalities.
Although birds are among the best studied taxa, many of the globally threatened species lack the information required to fully assess their conservation status and needs. One such species is the Anjouan Scops Owl Otus capnodes which was presumed extinct until its rediscovery to science in 1992. Based on the limited extent and decline of the moist forests in the highlands of Anjouan in the Comoro Islands, a population size of only 100–200 pairs was estimated and the species was classified as ‘Critically Endangered’. The current study is the first comprehensive survey ever conducted on this species, and aimed to establish the current distribution and population size. Point counts with distance sampling were conducted across the agroforestry and forest zones of Anjouan in both a dry and wet season. A niche suitability model predicted the species distribution to be wider than expected with owls observed as low as 300 m altitude and in highly modified agroforestry habitats. However, the encounter rate in natural relatively undisturbed forest was significantly greater than in other habitats. The wider than expected geographic range of O. capnodes supports a possible downlisting of this species on the IUCN Red List to ‘Endangered’. Population size was found to be far greater than previously thought, at approximately 3,450 individual owls in the dry season and 5,450 in the wet season. These results show the importance of investing in robust surveys of poorly known and cryptic bird species, and provide up to date and important information for landscape scale conservation planning in the Comoros Islands.
Spinel (MgAl2O4) single crystals which had been neutron irradiated at (nominally) 400 and 750°C to high doses (53-250 dpa) were examined using 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The sensitivity of this procedure to a specific cation (Al) residing in different crystallographic environments allowed us to determine the distribution of the Al between the tetrahedral and octahedral cation sites in the spinel structure. Our results indicate that the Al was distributed nearly equally over both cation sites in the spinel, resulting in a nearly inverse structure.
Compositional interdiffusion in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs superlattice structures with equal 3.5 nm barrier and well widths induced by Si focused ion beam implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing has been modeled. A strong depth dependence of the mixing process is observed at a Si++ energy of 100 keV and at a dose of 1×1014 cm−2; this depth dependence is modeled by considering the second derivative of the vacancy profile. That is the maximum in the vacancy injection generated by the transient vacancy concentration gradient. We have included the dynamics of the spatial vacancy profile in the model and find good agreement with experimental results.
Interdiffusion across the well/barrier interfaces modifies the subband structure in AlGaAs/GaAs single quantum well (QW) structures. We have investigated the interrelated changes in both confinement energy of the subband states and the composition dependence of the bandgap energy in the QW, both of which are a strong function of the initial well width. Higher order transitions are found to be more sensitive than the ground state transitions to interdiffusion especially during the early stages of interdiffusion. These calculations model the experimental measurements (photoluminescence and photoreflectance) which are used to characterize interdiffused QW structures.