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In this contribution to the forum marking the publication of Andrew Linklater’s remarkable book on Violence and Civilization in the Western States-Systems we first locate the book in the context of Linklater’s overarching intellectual journey. While best known for his contribution to a critical international theory, it is through his engagement with Martin Wight’s comparative sociology of states-systems that Linklater found resonances with the work of process sociologist, Norbert Elias. Integrating Wight’s insights into the states-system with Elias’s insights into civilising processes, Violence and Civilization presents a high-level theoretical synthesis with the aim of historically tracing restraints on violence. The article identifies a tension between the cosmopolitan philosophical history which underpins the argument of the book, and which has underpinned all Linklater’s previous works, and the ‘Utrecht Enlightenment’ that offers a conception of ‘civilized statecraft’ at odds with a universal conception of morality and justice. The article then examines Linklater’s argument about the ‘global civilizing process’ as it applies to post-Second World War efforts to build greater institutional capability to protect peoples from harm. It is argued that Linklater over-estimates the extent to which solidarism has civilised international society, and that the extension of state responsibilities and development of civilised statecraft owe more to pluralism than solidarism.
Since World War II U.S. Agriculture has seen regional shifts and greater concentration in the production of certain commodities. Technological and infrastructural developments in irrigation, plant varieties, cultivation techniques, transportation, storage, and processing have lowered the barriers of time and space, thus allowing remote regions to compete with and even dominate the traditional production areas. The U.S. potato industry offers an excellent example of this. Processed potatoes have become the dominant food use form and production has shifted westward and become more concentrated both with respect to time and location. In 1947, 44 percent of U.S. potato production was in the seven largest potato states for the fall crop, 35 percent was produced in the nonfall crops, and eight percent was processed. By 1978, 75 percent was produced by the seven leading states for the fall crop, 14 percent in the early nonfall crops, and 59 percent was processed. Because many of these changes involved the adoption of relatively energy intensive techniques, the existence of low and fairly stable energy prices until 1973 aided this change. The increases in energy costs since 1973 raise questions about the long-run stability of recent patterns of production and consumption.
The Vacuum Solar Telescope has been described elsewhere by Dunn (1964, 1969). A brief summary of its characteristics is included here as background for discussing the computer control of this instrument.
This telescope is altazimuth in design. Image rotation is accomplished by rotating the inner tube structure together with all the auxiliary instruments. Azimuth and elevation torque motors drive the two mirrors at the top of the tower to track the sun automatically. The input to the servo is derived from a photoelectric guider. When clouds intervene, the servos are switched from the photoelectric guider to an electromechanical coordinate converter that also generates the signal for the rotation of the table. An elaborate 25: 1 synchro system connects the mirror servos to the coordinate converter.
The Sac Peak magnetograph (DZA) has been modified from Evans' original scheme so that it measures the displacement of the right and left hand circularly polarized lines separately. The computer reduction calculates the Zeeman and radial velocity signals. A grating servo system has been added to correct for slow temperature drifts in the spectrograph. A paper-tape reader controls the raster scan and the formatting of data on to magnetic tape.
The Critically Endangered Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa has not been reliably recorded since 1876. Recent searches of historical sites have failed to detect the species, but we estimate an extinction year of 2023 giving us reason to believe that the species may still be extant. Species distribution models can act as a guide for survey efforts, but the current land cover in the historical specimen record locations is unlikely to reflect Himalayan Quail habitat preferences due to extensive modifications. Thus, we investigate the use of two proxy species: Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallechi and Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus that taken together are thought to have macro-habitat requirements that encapsulate those of the Himalayan Quail. After modelling climate and topography space for the Himalayan Quail and these proxy species we find the models for the proxy species have moderate overlap with that of the Himalayan Quail. Models improved with the incorporation of land cover data and when these were overlaid with the Himalayan Quail climate model, we were able to identify suitable areas to target surveys. Using a measure of search effort from recent observations of other galliformes, we identify 923 km2 of suitable habitat surrounding Mussoorie in Northern India that requires further surveys. We conclude with a list of five priority survey sites as a starting point.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16µm thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3  (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the  bar axis with 1/3<110>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5º.
It is uncertain whether antipsychotic long-acting injection (LAI) medication in schizophrenia is associated with better clinical outcomes than oral preparations.
To examine the impact of prior treatment delivery route on treatment outcomes and whether any differences are moderated by adherence.
Analysis of data from two pragmatic 1-year clinical trials in which patients with schizophrenia were randomised to either an oral first-generation antipsychotic (FGA), or a non-clozapine second-generation antipsychotic (SGA, CUtLASS 1 study), or a non-clozapine SGA or clozapine (CUtLASS 2 study).
Across both trials, 43% (n = 155) of participants were prescribed an FGA-LAI before randomisation. At 1-year follow-up they showed less improvement in quality of life, symptoms and global functioning than those randomised from oral medication. This difference was confined to patients rated as less than consistently adherent pre-randomisation. The relatively poor improvement in the patients prescribed an LAI pre-randomisation was ameliorated if they had been randomised to clozapine rather than another SGA. There was no advantage to being randomly assigned from an LAI at baseline to a non-clozapine oral SGA rather than an oral FGA.
A switch at randomisation from an LAI to an oral antipsychotic was associated with poorer clinical and functional outcomes at 1-year follow-up compared with switching from one oral antipsychotic to another. This effect appears to be moderated by adherence, and may not extend to switching to clozapine. This has implications for clinical trial design: the drug from which a participant is randomised may have a greater effect than the drug to which they are randomised.
Background: Substantial epidemiological research has shown that psychotic experiences are more common in densely populated areas. Many patients with persecutory delusions find it difficult to enter busy social urban settings. The stress and anxiety caused by being outside lead many patients to remain in-doors. We therefore developed a brief CBT intervention, based upon a formulation of the way urban environments cause stress and anxiety, to help patients with paranoid thoughts to feel less distressed when outside in busy streets. Aims: The aim was to pilot the new intervention for feasibility and acceptability and gather preliminary outcome data. Method: Fifteen patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a schizophrenia diagnosis took part. All patients first went outside to test their reactions, received the intervention, and then went outside again. Results: The intervention was considered useful by the patients. There was evidence that going outside after the intervention led to less paranoid responses than the initial exposure, but this was only statistically significant for levels of distress. Conclusions: Initial evidence was obtained that a brief CBT module specifically focused on helping patients with paranoia go outside is feasible, acceptable, and may have clinical benefits. However, it could not be determined from this small feasibility study that any observed improvements were due to the CBT intervention. Challenges in this area and future work required are outlined.